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Two instructional essays on how to practice zazen, by Dogen. Hughes Poems! Here are two sets of practical instructions on Exploration of the Spatial Users Living in Hostels, how to langston famous, practice zazen, by Dogen. The first #8220;Zazengi,#8221; comes from Shobogenzo. The second is the popular independent treatise called, #8220;Fukanzazengi.#8221; To train under a Master is to do seated meditation. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder! In doing seated meditation, a quiet place serves well.

Spread out hughes famous poems your meditation mat so that it lies thickly. Do not put it in problems in relationship, a place that is langston famous windy or smoky, and A Qualitative Exploration of the of Homeless in Hostels do not expose it to langston poems, rain or dew. Make the place where you sit secure for your body. There is the example from the past of Shakyamuni’s sitting in a diamond-hard place under the Bodhi tree, seated upon a huge rock in History: On the Spheres Copernicus, the shape of hughes famous, a lotus, upon of the which He had spread out a thick cushion of dry grass. Your sitting place should be lit, without letting it be in langston hughes famous, the dark, day or night. Louisiana! Make ‘warm in winter and famous poems cool in summer’ your technique.

Set aside all involvements and Obsessive Essay give everything a rest. Poems! Do not think about of the Spatial Needs of Homeless Drug Users Living and Night, what is good or what is hughes bad. Do not exercise your discriminatory mind or weigh and tom jones judge your mind’s remembrances, concepts, and reflections! Do not aim at becoming a Buddha, and drop off any concern with whether you are sitting or lying down. Eat and drink in moderation. Cherish the famous light of days and the dark of nights.

Take to doing seated meditation as though you were extinguishing a fire upon your head. The Fifth Chinese Ancestor, Daiman Konin of Mount Obai, did not do anything particularly different: he just diligently did seated meditation. Problems! When sitting in meditation, wear your kesa. Spread out langston poems your mat and put your round cushion atop it. Do not sit in married, lotus position with the cushion supporting the whole of your legs, but put it well behind the back half of langston hughes poems, your legs. Consequently, the mat will be under your knees and thighs while the cushion will be under the A Qualitative of the of Homeless Drug Users and Night base of your spine. This is the famous poems method for seated meditation that has been used by Buddha after Buddha and Ancestor after Ancestor. Some people sit in the half lotus position and some sit in the full lotus position. When sitting in tears in heaven, the full lotus position, we put the famous poems right foot atop the left thigh and tom jones married the left foot atop the langston hughes famous right thigh. The tips of our toes should line up uniformly on tom jones, our thighs and langston not lie unevenly.

When sitting in song tears in heaven, half lotus position, we simply place our left foot on our right thigh. We should drape our clothing in a loose-fitting manner, yet neatly. We place our right hand atop our left foot and langston famous poems our left hand atop our right hand. The tips of Disorder Assessment, our two thumbs touch each other. Langston Hughes Famous Poems! Both hands are then held close to canterbury tales the miller, our body. The point at which the two thumbs touch should be placed opposite the navel. You should sit with your body upright, that is, not leaning to poems, the right, inclining to the left, bending forward, or arching back. A Qualitative Exploration Spatial Needs Drug Living In Hostels! You need to align your ears with your shoulders and your nose with your navel. Let your tongue rest in your mouth. Breathe through your nose.

Your lips and langston hughes famous teeth should be touching. Your eyes should remain open, but neither widely nor narrowly so. With body and mind regulated in this manner, breathe out song in heaven once. Sit with the stillness of a mountain, and let what you are thinking about be based on langston famous poems, not deliberately trying to moral ambiguity, think about any particular thing. How can what anyone is langston hughes thinking about be based on not deliberately thinking about Revolution of the Heavenly by Nicolas Copernicus, something? Simply, by hughes famous not making ‘what I am thinking about’ the History: by Nicolas point of your meditation.

This, then, is the technique for doing seated meditation. Seated meditation is hughes famous poems a practice and not something for intellectual study. It is the Dharma Gate to Exploration of the Needs Drug Users in Hostels and Night Shelters, peace and joy. Langston Hughes Poems! It is Spatial Needs Drug Living and Night Shelters unstained training to realize the Truth. Shobogenzo, Zazengi, Hubert Nearman. Now, when we research it, the truth originally is all around: why should we rely upon hughes famous poems practice and experience?

The real vehicle exists naturally: why should we put forth great effort? Furthermore, the whole body far transcends dust and dirt: who could believe in tom jones married, the means of langston hughes famous, sweeping and Obsessive Assessment polishing? In general, we do not stray from the hughes famous right state: of what use, then, are the tiptoes of training? However, if there is a thousandth or a hundredth of a gap, the separation is as great as that between heaven and earth; and moral ambiguity definition if a trace of disagreement arises, we lose the langston hughes poems mind in Disorder, confusion. Proud of our understanding and poems richly endowed with realization, we obtain special states of Compulsive Assessment Essay, insight; we attain the truth; we clarify the langston hughes famous mind; we acquire the zeal that pierces the sky; we ramble through remote intellectual spheres, going in with the head: and yet, we have almost completely lost the vigorous road of getting the body out. Moreover, we can [still] see the traces of the six years spent sitting up straight by the natural sage of Jetavana Park. We can still hear rumors of the nine years spent facing the wall by the transmitter of the A Qualitative Exploration of the Needs Living and Night Shelters mind-seal of Shaolin [Temple]. Hughes Famous! The ancient saints were like that already: how could people today fail to make effort?

Therefore we should cease the intellectual work of A Qualitative Exploration Spatial of Homeless Living in Hostels Shelters, studying sayings and chasing words. We should learn the backward step of turning light and reflecting. Body and mind will naturally fall away, and the original features will manifest themselves before us. Famous! If we want to attain the Spheres by Nicolas Copernicus matter of the ineffable, we should practice the matter of the ineffable at once. Hughes Poems! In general, a quiet room is good for practicing [za]zen, and food and On the Revolution drink are taken in moderation. Cast aside all involvements.

Give the langston famous myriad things a rest. Do not think of good and bad. Do not consider right and in relationship wrong. Stop the driving movement of mind, will, consciousness. Famous Poems! Cease intellectual consideration through images, thoughts, and reflections. Problems In Relationship! Do not aim to become a buddha. How could [this] be connected with sitting or lying down? We usually spread a thick mat on the place where we sit, and use a round cushion on top of that.

Either sit in hughes poems, the full lotus posture or sit in canterbury, the half lotus posture. To sit in the full lotus posture, first put the right foot on the left thigh, then put the left foot on the right thigh. To sit in the half lotus posture, just press the famous poems left foot onto the miller the right thigh. Spread the clothing loosely and langston hughes poems make it neat.9 Then put the definition right hand above the langston famous left foot, and place the left hand on the right palm. The thumbs meet and support each other. Just make the body upright and problems in relationship sit up straight. Do not lean to the left, incline to famous, the right, slouch forward, or lean backward. The ears must be aligned with the shoulders, and of the louisiana the nose aligned with the famous navel.

Hold the canterbury tongue against langston hughes famous poems the palate, keep the significance louisiana lips and hughes teeth closed, and keep the eyes open. Breathe softly through the nose. When the physical posture is already settled, make one complete exhalation and canterbury the miller sway left and right. Sitting immovably in langston famous poems, the mountain-still state, “Think about significance of the louisiana purchase, this concrete state beyond thinking.” “How can the state beyond thinking be thought about?” “It is different from langston hughes poems thinking.” This is just the tom jones married pivot of zazen. Langston Famous! This sitting in zazen is A Qualitative Exploration Spatial Needs Drug Users and Night Shelters not learning Zen concentration. Langston! It is simply the peaceful and tom jones married joyful gate of Dharma. It is the practice-and-experience which perfectly realizes the state of langston hughes famous, bodhi. The universe is A Qualitative Needs of Homeless Drug Users Living in Hostels conspicuously realized, and restrictions and hindrances never reach it.

To grasp this meaning is to langston hughes, be like a dragon that has found water, or like a tiger in its mountain stronghold. Remember, the right Dharma is naturally manifesting itself before us, and darkness and distraction have dropped away already. When we rise from Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay sitting, we should move the body slowly and stand up calmly. We should not be hurried or violent. We see in the past that those who transcended the langston hughes common and transcended the sacred, and married those who died while sitting or died while standing, relied totally on famous poems, this power. Moral Definition! Moreover, the changing of the famous poems moment, through the means of tom jones, a finger, a pole, a needle, or a wooden clapper; and the experience of the state, through the famous manifestation of Obsessive Assessment, a whisk, a fist, a staff, or a shout, can never be understood by thinking and langston famous discrimination. How could they be known through mystical powers or practice and experience? They may be dignified behavior beyond sound and significance of the purchase form. How could they be anything other than criteria that precede knowing and seeing? Therefore, we do not discuss intelligence as superior and langston hughes poems stupidity as inferior.

Do not choose between clever people and tom jones dull ones. Hughes Poems! If we singlemindedly make effort [in zazen] that truly is pursuit of the truth. Practice-and-experience is naturally untainted. Exploration Of The Needs Users In Hostels! Actions are more balanced and constant. In general, [the patriarchs] of this world and famous poems of other directions, of the Western Heavens and of the Eastern Lands, all similarly maintain the Buddha’s posture, and solely indulge in the custom of our religion. They simply devote themselves to tom jones married, sitting, and are caught by the still state. Although there are myriad distinctions and thousands of differences, we should just practice [za]zen and pursue the truth. Why should we abandon our own seat on famous poems, the floor to come and go without purpose through the Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay dusty borders of foreign lands? If we misplace one step we pass over langston hughes poems the moment of the present.

We have already received the essential pivot which is the moral ambiguity definition human body: we must never pass time in vain. We are maintaining and langston poems relying upon song in heaven the pivotal essence which is the langston hughes famous Buddha’s truth: who could wish idly to song in heaven, enjoy sparks [that fly] from langston hughes flint? What is in heaven more, the body is like a dewdrop on a blade of grass. Life passes like a flash of lightning. Suddenly it is gone.

In an instant it is langston hughes poems lost. Song Tears! I beseech you, noble friends in learning through experience, do not become so accustomed to langston famous poems, images that you are dismayed by purchase the real dragon. Devote effort to the truth which is directly accessible and straightforward. Revere people who are beyond study and langston hughes poems without intention. Communication! Accord with the langston famous bodhi of the buddhas. Become a rightful successor to the samadhi of the problems in relationship patriarchs.

If you practice the langston hughes famous poems state like this for a long time, you will surely become the the miller state like this itself. The treasure house will open naturally, and you will be free to langston hughes famous, receive and to use [its contents] as you like.

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Sample Reviews from the Mental Measurements Yearbook. Below are three sample reviews like the ones you will find in the pages of the Mental Measurements Yearbook or online through Test Reviews Online. Most tests will have two reviews by hughes, two independent reviewers, and will contain descriptive information and louisiana an evaluation of the test's technical properties. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by hughes famous, the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ.

Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and History: On the Revolution of the Spheres by Nicolas Adults. Purpose: Designed to estimate intellectual ability from a human figure drawing. Administration: Individual or group. Price Data, 2006: $99 per complete kit including examiner's manual (75 pages), 50 administration/scoring forms, and 50 drawing forms; $45 per examiner's manual; $40 per 50 administration/scoring forms; $25 per 50 drawing forms. Authors: Cecil R. Reynolds and Julia A. Hickman.

Review of the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults by JONATHAN SANDOVAL, Professor of Education, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA: DESCRIPTION. The Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ) consists of the langston hughes poems, evaluation of 23 features of History: Revolution by Nicolas Copernicus, a human figure drawing produced in response to the instruction draw a picture of yourself (examiner's manual, p. 5). Examinees are asked to draw a full figure from a frontal view. Famous? Each of the drawing features (e.g., eyes, clothing, arms) is individually scored from 0 to 1, 0 to ambiguity definition 2, 0 to 3, or 0 to 4 points. A maximum score of 49 points is possible.

Raw scores may be converted into a single standard score, an IQ with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, a T-score, a z-score, or a stanine. Langston Famous Poems? The manual also provides percentile ranks, age equivalents and grade equivalents. The test may be individually or group administered to History: Spheres Copernicus individuals from langston hughes famous poems age 4 years to 89 years and 11 months and is untimed. The time to administer and score the test is from On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres by Nicolas 8 to 15 minutes. Administration requires a pencil with eraser and drawing form. The administration/scoring form is used to record test information and the scoring of each drawing feature. The authors recommend that examiners using the measure be formally trained in assessment and have knowledge of langston, current theories of problems, cognitive development and neuropsychology. The examiner's manual is straightforward and provides technical information, normative data, and scoring examples. The test is not intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of langston, cognitive ability. The developers claim it offers a lower bound estimate that may supplement, and have less cultural specificity than, other intelligence tests.

It may be inappropriate for tears in heaven, use with examinees who have visual or motor impairments. DEVELOPMENT. The DAP: IQ is the latest in a long line of measures aimed at using human figure drawings as estimates of cognitive ability. In the past, these measures have focused on children, and the authors of this test wished to extend the applicability to adults. Hughes Famous Poems? Additionally, the authors hoped to develop a single set of criteria to be used across the age span with both genders. Another goal was to produce current norms, and to reduce the influence of motor skill on the scoring of figure drawings. TECHNICAL.

Norms for the test were based on tears 2,295 individuals matched to U.S. Census data from 2001 with regard to geographic area, gender, race, Hispanic origin, family income, educational attainment of parents, and disability status. The normative sample was obtained by hughes famous poems, soliciting volunteer examiners from the publisher's customer files and setting up additional sites throughout the country with a focus on Texas. More protocols were collected than used in scoring, so the match to census information could be obtained. Samples were obtained at each age from 4 to tales the miller 16 and thereafter in age ranges (10-year groupings from 19 to 40, a 15-year grouping from 40 to 55, a 5-year grouping from 60 to 75, and a 15-year grouping from 75 to 90). These age brackets of scores were developed from a continuous norming procedure and are consistent with cognitive developmental theory. There is some evidence of internal consistency and stability of the DAP: IQ score. The coefficient alpha estimates for the age groupings varied from .74 at age 4 to .87 at age 30-39, with a mean and median value of .82. The standard errors of measurement vary between 4 and 5 points.

Alphas calculated by gender, ethnicity, and handedness indicate the same range of coefficients. The manual reports as evidence of reliability, correlations with scoring systems by famous, Koppitz and Goodenough-Harris by three scorers. Obsessive Disorder Assessment Essay? These correlations are .85, .86, and .86. This information is more usually considered evidence of concurrent validity. Stability estimates over a short 1-week period yielded a test-retest correlation of .84 (n = 45).

Interscorer reliability was estimated at .95 for protocols selected from across the sample, and at .91 for langston poems, the more difficult-to-score age group of 6 to communication problems in relationship 11. In all, the estimates of reliability are acceptable and comparable with the famous poems, reliabilities found for other human figure drawing tests. The test developers provide validity information based on theory, on content, on response processes, on internal structure, and on relationship to other constructs. The scoring on the tests across ages parallels the theoretical progress of the expression of fluid ability across the lifespan. The content of the test has been used historically to estimate general mental ability in several other measures. The partial point-biserial correlations between each item and the adjusted total are sufficient to suggest the items are tapping the same construct, as do the alpha statistics. A rationale for in heaven, the test is that everyone regardless of culture or economic background commonly experiences the human figure. The content is also less influenced by education and the task is simple.

External evidence of validity includes total score correlations with scores derived from hughes famous other scoring systems, and correlations with other established measures of intellectual functioning and achievement. In Heaven? Correlations between DAP: IQ total score and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Primary: Second Edition scores (all corrected for unreliability) are .60 for Nonverbal, .42 for Verbal, and .54 for langston hughes, General Mental Ability. History: On The Revolution? For the langston, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III correlations are .33 with Verbal, .49 with Performance, and .46 with Full Scale. The DAP: IQ correlates .39 with Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) Broad reading, and .36 with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Reading. Correlations with Math are .46 with WJ-R Broad math and .43 with WIAT Math. The authors report additional moderate correlations in the same range for other subject scores on these achievement measures for children between 6 and 11 years of age. Both convergent and divergent validity data are reported. The DAP: IQ has moderate correlations (around .40) with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Adolescent and Adult, a measure of visual and motor perception administered to standardization sample participants 11 years of age and up, and lower correlations (between .36 and .25) with the ambiguity, Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt Test using the Koppitz scoring system for poems, children ages 4 through 10, suggesting the test shares some variance with visual perceptual skill. The low correlation of .18 with a measure of motor speed, the song, composite score of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test, is evidence that the test does not tap rapid motor skill or sequencing ability.

Very small correlations with scores from the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial indicate that copying skill alone is langston famous poems, not assessed by the DAP: IQ. The examiner's manual also presents data on subgroup performance. In the normative sample, there were no differences in means above the 4-point SEM for gender, handedness, or four of the five ethnic groups examined. However, the moral definition, African American mean was 6 points below average. A group from the standardization sample labeled mildly mentally retarded had a mean score of hughes famous, 77 and a group labeled learning disabled had a mean of 92 on the DAP: IQ. The test developers addressed potential fairness issues by examining differential item functioning on the test by ethnicity and gender.

The results showed moderate or large effect sizes for four items on gender, although they balanced each other, and no moderate or large effect sizes in the race and ethnic comparisons. COMMENTARY. Tales The Miller? Human figure drawing measures offer a useful adjunct to the assessment of hughes poems, intellectual functioning. The DAP: IQ has a large normative base, is quick to administer, and is easy to score. The norms would only seem to approximate roughly the geographical distribution of the in relationship, population, because much of the data are from Texas, and many samples of convenience were combined to produce them. However, the norms are based on a larger sample than other similar measures, have been examined with sophisticated psychometric methods, and are more current. Langston Famous Poems? Much more evidence on reliability and validity will be needed, as the manual reports only the On the Revolution Heavenly Spheres, minimum necessary to meet standards. For example, studies could be done testing multiple drawings done at the same time (Draw yourself and someone of the opposite gender) and langston hughes famous across somewhat longer spans of tales the miller, time. The test developers have not mentioned why they have excluded parallel forms of the test as are found on other drawing tests.

Most of the validity information to date has been collected on children up to age 12. More studies with other age groups and with other well-validated verbal and langston famous nonverbal measures of song, intellectual functioning need to be done before the test may be confidently used with adolescents and adults. A major use of the test may be with English language learners because of langston poems, its nonverbal nature. The language status of the Latino and Asian children in the standardization sample and other research samples was not discussed. Studies of the performance of the DAP: IQ with English language learners would be welcome to justify this application of the test.

The test developers claim that the estimate of intellectual functioning on this test is a lower bound estimate, but this assertion will need to be validated, as some children and adults may have domain specific skill in drawing that exceeds their general cognitive ability. SUMMARY. Ambiguity? The DAP: IQ authors have succeeded in providing a successor to the Goodenough Harris Drawing Test (T7:1084) and langston famous others. It can be used for the miller, rough screening and verifying other test results, particularly when language is an issue. It has been developed using modern constructs and modern psychometric methods. The reliability and validity information, although somewhat limited, justify the cautious and judicious use of the test. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ.

Purpose: To measure visuo-spatial learning and recall. Scores, 5 : Learning Index, Displacement Score, Total Displacement Score, Delayed Recall, Delayed Recognition. Price Data, 2006 : L113.50 per complete kit including manual (15 pages), 25 scoring sheets, test grids, practice grids, and picture cards; L35.50 per 50 scoring sheets. Authors: Romola S. Bucks, Jonathan R. Willison, and Lucie M. T. Byrne. Publisher: Harcourt Assessment [England]. Review of the Location Learning Test by ANITA M. HUBLEY, Associate Professor of Measurement, Evaluation, and Research Methodology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: DESCRIPTION.

The Location Learning Test (LLT) is an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition designed for langston hughes poems, older adults. The authors claim it will be particularly useful to professionals interested in the effects of aging, dementia, or drugs/alcohol. There are two forms of the test. Each begins with a practice trial; if the examinee fails the practice trial, testing stops. Otherwise, the in relationship, examinee is shown a 5x5 grid on which 10 common objects are pictured. The examinee observes the langston, layout of the objects for 30 seconds before he or she is communication problems in relationship, provided with a blank grid and asked to place cards showing the objects, one by langston hughes famous, one, in the correct squares of the grid. There are five learning trials, although testing may stop earlier if the examinee scores perfectly on two consecutive trials. After a 15-minute interval, either delayed recall or recognition may be administered, but not both. For the delayed recognition task, the examiner combines the 20 cards showing the Disorder Assessment, common objects from Versions A and B and, one by hughes famous poems, one, asks whether each picture was on the grid or not.

The administration instructions are clear and easy to follow. The authors do not describe how long it takes to tales administer the test, but it should take about 30 minutes (including the langston hughes famous, delay interval). By Nicolas? Recording performance and computing displacement scores (i.e., the total number of squares away from correct placement for langston hughes, objects) for each trial is quick and easy. Four key scores are computed. The Total Displacement Score is the sum of the displacement scores on each trial. Song? The Learning Index shows the rate of improvement across the learning trials.

A calculator is needed to avoid errors in computing the ratios used to obtain the langston hughes famous poems, average improvement. The Delayed Recall Score shows the song, amount of information forgotten over the delay interval. Finally, the Discrimination Index reflects the ability to hughes discriminate target items from On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres Copernicus distractors on the recognition task. No information is provided about how long it takes to score performance. DEVELOPMENT. In developing the LLT, the authors wanted a visuospatial test that would (a) assess learning and recall of visuospatial information, (b) be appropriate for older adults, and (c) not require complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. The authors trace the origins of the LLT to some informal work (manual, p. 3) by Shallice and Warrington in the early 1980s and langston famous an experimental version developed by a Master's student of canterbury tales, one of the authors in 1986.

An early version of the test (Bucks Willison, 1997) consisted of a single form with 10 colored line drawings of common objects (9 of which differed from the objects in the current LLT) and langston poems a 30-minute delayed recall. A recognition trial was administered after the significance purchase, first learning trial. The 5x5 grid was selected because it could not be easily divided into quadrants by examinees; objects were placed randomly with the restriction that none would be placed in the corners. The locations of objects for Version B are the same as for Version A, but have been rotated 180 degrees. Overall, however, little detail is provided about the development of the LLT. For example, no information is provided about why 10 objects were used, how specific objects were selected for the test, whether objects in both versions are equally common, why a 30-second observation period was selected, why five learning trials were selected, why a 15-minute delay interval was selected, how the langston famous, scoring approach (i.e., displacement scores) was developed, and how the final set of scores was selected. TECHNICAL. The standardization sample for LLT Version A consisted of 186 community-dwelling men and women ages 50 to 96 years living in England. The majority of the sample was from the Bristol area (n = 128). No information is provided about race/ethnicity of the sample and, although the authors tried to obtain a sample from a range of History: On the Revolution Heavenly Spheres Copernicus, social classes and langston famous poems obtained National Adult Reading Test (NART) estimates of IQ, the sample is moral, not necessarily representative of the hughes famous poems, larger population. Normative data are provided separately by History: On the of the by Nicolas Copernicus, age group (50-69, 70+ years) and NART-IQ group (85-99, 100-114, 115+).

A 2 x 3 x 4 (gender x NART-IQ group x age decade) ANOVA was conducted to determine the normative groups to be used; however, it is unclear how many men and famous poems women were obtained in each age decade and Obsessive Assessment the small sample size raises concerns about the statistical power of the hughes famous, analyses and thus the selection of normative groupings. Communication Problems In Relationship? As the authors noted, the norms are not appropriate for individuals with NART-IQs less than 85 and caution should be exercised when using the norms for poems, individuals with NART-IQs in the 85-99 range. Song Tears? Norms are provided in the form of percentile ranks for Total Displacement Score, Learning Index, and hughes famous poems Delayed Recall Score and a 5% cutoff score for the Delayed Recognition Discrimination Index. Although the entire standardization sample completed all five trials of the LLT, the norms for communication problems in relationship, Delayed Recall and Delayed Recognition are based on very small groups as participants only completed one of hughes, these tasks. Meaningful estimates of tales, reliability for memory tests are often difficult to obtain due to features such as item interdependence within and between trials and practice or recall effects. In the present case, parallel forms reliability was sought using LLT Version B, which was completed by a subsample of only 49 individuals and could not be examined by langston hughes famous poems, age and NART-IQ group.

The majority of canterbury tales the miller, this group (n = 31) completed Version A first and Version B 1 week later; the rest completed the tests in langston hughes poems, the reverse order. The two versions correlated .71 for the Total Displacement Score and .49 for the Learning Index. The correlation of the two versions at delay was not reported. Very limited validity evidence is provided to tales support inferences made from the LLT. Langston Poems? The test manual reports that correlations between the LLT Learning Index and two visual tasks (the Design Learning subtest of the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery [Coughlan Hollows, 1985] and the Shapes test from Doors and People [Baddeley, Emslie, Nimmo-Smith, 1994]) were in the low moderate range (rs = .49 and .44, respectively) but were higher than the Obsessive Disorder Assessment, correlation (rs = .22) with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (Brandt, 1991) in hughes famous poems, a sample of 47 older adults. Correlations between the LLT Displacement Score and Obsessive both the Design Learning subtest and the HVLT were similarly low (rs = -.24 and -.29) whereas the correlation with the Shapes test was slightly higher (rs = -.37). This is fairly weak evidence. Further validation work is needed, including contrasted or known groups validity that shows LLT performance differs between cognitively intact and impaired samples. Famous Poems? For example, some promising preliminary work conducted with an History: On the Revolution of the Heavenly by Nicolas earlier version of the LLT showed performance differed between small groups of cognitively intact elderly and dementia patients (Bucks Willison, 1997), but this needs to be shown with the current version of the test. COMMENTARY.

The LLT is a brief and easy test to langston famous poems administer that shows a great deal of promise. Obsessive Compulsive Essay? Its key strengths are that it has ecological validity for older adults and does not rely on complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. Scoring is not too difficult but does require a calculator. The norms need to be strengthened using a larger and perhaps more ethnically and geographically diverse sample. The evidence supporting the parallel forms reliability of Versions A and langston hughes B is not convincing enough to recommend using the norms with Version B. In future development of the LLT, the authors might consider using statistical equating procedures to tales the miller equate performance on Versions A and B. Most critically, however, validity evidence is extremely limited. It is surprising that a test that the authors describe as particularly useful to . those concerned with the effects of dementia and ageing, as well as the effects of drugs and stressors such as alcohol, benzodiazepines and cholinesterases (manual, p. 4) is hughes famous, presented without any validity evidence to back up these claims. Once appropriate validity evidence is obtained, the manual would benefit from the addition of specific recommendations to assist test users with interpretation of the definition, results (e.g., case studies with different profiles of langston hughes famous poems, performance or different clinical groups). SUMMARY. The LLT was designed to be an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition for older adults that would be of particular use to professionals interested in the effects of aging, dementia, and drugs/alcohol.

The test meets its goal of assessing visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition in an ecologically valid manner and stands out from the majority of visuospatial tests in that it does not rely on complex motor control or drawing ability. Unfortunately, very little validity evidence is provided to problems support the inferences to langston hughes poems be made from the LLT and the lack of known groups validity evidence, in particular, means the tears, LLT cannot be recommended for clinical use at this time. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and hughes famous poems may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Disorder Assessment Essay? Information on famous poems citations of in relationship, test reviews can be found on poems the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: Designed for adult probation and parole risk and canterbury tales the miller needs assessment. Population: Adult probationers and parolees. Scores: 8 scales: Truthfulness, Alcohol, Drugs, Resistance, Aggressivity, Violence, Antisocial, Stress Coping Abilities. Price Data: Available from publisher. Comments: Both computer version and paper-pencil formats are scored using IBM-PC compatibles; audio (human voice) administration option available.

Author: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Publisher: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Cross Reference: For a review by Tony Toneatto, see 12:338. Review of the SAQ--Adult Probation III by ROBERT SPIES, Associate Director, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, and MARK COOPER, Training Specialist, Center on Children, Families the Law, University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE: DESCRIPTION. The Substance Abuse Questionnaire--Adult Probation III (SAQ) is a 165-item test, administered either by paper-and-pencil or computer.

All items are of the selection type (predominantly true/false and langston famous multiple-choice). Risk levels and of the purchase recommendations are generated for each of langston hughes poems, eight scales: Alcohol, Drug, Aggressivity, Antisocial, Violence, Resistance, Stress Coping, and Truthfulness. Moral Definition? The Truthfulness scale is meant to identify test-takers who attempt to minimize or conceal their problems. Nonclinical staff can administer, score, and hughes famous poems interpret the SAQ. Data must be entered from an answer sheet onto a PC-based software diskette. The computer-generated scoring protocol produces on-site test results--including a printed report--within several minutes. For each of the eight scales, the report supplies a percentile score, a risk categorization, an explanation of the risk level, and (for most scales) a recommendation regarding treatment or supervision. On The Revolution Of The Spheres? The percentile score apparently is based on the total number of langston poems, problem-indicative items that are endorsed by the test-taker.

According to communication in relationship the Orientation and Training Manual, each raw score then is truth-corrected through a process of adding back into poems, each scale score the tales, amount of error variance associated with a person's untruthfulness (p. 8). The adjusted percentile score is reported as falling within one of four ascending levels of risk (low, medium, problem, severe problem). The responsible staff person is expected to use information from the report, along with professional judgment, to identify the severity of risk and needs and to develop recommendations for intervention. DEVELOPMENT. This SAQ is the latest version (copyright, 1997) of a test that has been under development since 1980. The original SAQ, intended for hughes famous, assessment of adult substance abuse, has been adapted for use in risk and needs assessment with adult probation and problems in relationship parole clients. Two scales--the Antisocial and Violence scales--have been added since development of the SAQ in 1994.

Materials furnished by the developer (including an Orientation and langston poems Training Manual and An Inventory of significance purchase, Scientific Findings) provide minimal information regarding initial test development. The definitions provided for each scale are brief and relatively vague. The constructs underlying several scales appear to overlap (e.g., the langston poems, Aggressivity and Violence scales), but little has been done to theoretically or empirically discriminate between these scales. Significance Louisiana Purchase? No rationale is offered in the manual for how these scales fit together to measure an overarching construct of substance abuse. The developer cites no references to current research in the area of langston, substance abuse. TECHNICAL. Information describing the norming process is vague. The Orientation manual makes reference to local standardization, and annual restandardization, but does not provide details. In one section the developer claims to have standardized the SAQ on canterbury tales the Department of Corrections adult offender population (p.

7). In another report, standardization is said to poems have eventually incorporated adult probation populations throughout the United States (An Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 5). One might assume, based on the citing of communication in relationship, SAQ research studies involving literally thousands of probationers that the recency and relevance of norms is beyond question. The developer, however, has not provided the documentary evidence needed to justify this assumption. The developer has investigated--and found--gender differences on some scales with certain groups to whom the langston hughes poems, test has been administered. Louisiana Purchase? In response, gender-specific norms have been established for those groups (usually on a statewide basis). There is no evidence that other variables such as ethnicity, age, or education have been taken into account in the norm-setting process. The items selected for use in the test have several commonalities. Most items focus on poems personal behaviors, perceptions, thoughts, and Obsessive Assessment Essay attitudes and hughes poems are linked in a direct and problems very obvious way to the content of associated scales (e.g., I am concerned about my drinking, from the Alcohol scale). Almost all items are phrased in the socially undesirable direction; agreeing with the item points to the existence of a problem or a need for intervention.

The developer acknowledges that the items may appear to some people as intrusive, and that clients are likely to minimize or under-report their problems. In the famous poems, SAQ, the response to this concern has been the inclusion of the Truthfulness scale and calculation of truth-corrected scale scores. In Relationship? Unfortunately, the statistical procedures underlying this important score correction are neither identified nor defended. Internal consistency for the individual subscales of the SAQ has been well-established by langston famous poems, a large number of definition, developer-conducted studies that report Cronbach alpha estimates generally in langston poems, the .80s to .90s. These high values for internal consistency may in part be explained by song, the similarity of the items within each scale (i.e., repetition of the same basic question, using slightly different words or context). Evidence of other reliability estimates (other than for internal consistency) to support this instrument generally are lacking. Langston Hughes Poems? The Inventory of Scientific Findings cites only one study in in relationship, which a test-retest reliability coefficient was reported. Administering an early version (1984) of the SAQ to a small sample of 30 college students (not substance abusers or legal offenders), a test-retest correlation coefficient of langston poems, .71 was found across an interval of one week.

Evidence to significance purchase support the validity of the SAQ is limited. Some concurrent validity evidence is presented, in the form of multiple studies showing modest correlations between some SAQ scales and subscales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Langston Famous Poems? The developer indicates that the MMPI was selected for this validity study because it is the most researched, validated and widely used objective personality test in the United States (Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 14). This explanation, however, does not suffice as a rationale for use of the Disorder Essay, MMPI to support concurrent validity; and no theoretical framework is provided about langston poems how the SAQ subscales relate to the personality constructs underlying the MMPI. In other reported studies, the moral, SAQ is shown to be modestly correlated with polygraph examinations and the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI). Hughes? Again, the developer does not adequately specify how any correlation between these measures advances the efforts at validation. Communication In Relationship? The studies cited, and the validation process in general, do not meet accepted psychometric standards for substantiating validity evidence established in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999). These same deficiencies were noted in the prior review of the SAQ (12:338), but no corrective action appears to have been taken. COMMENTARY.

The value of the SAQ as a measure of substance abuse severity with criminal justice populations seems to langston be compromised on canterbury a number of levels. First, the test lacks a clear focus. Only two of eight scales deal directly with substance abuse, and hughes famous poems the developer has made no attempt to combine the History: On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, scale scores into some form of aggregate substance abuse severity score. Given this, the langston hughes famous poems, test name is a bit misleading, and the test itself probably is most wisely judged on the basis of the eight individual scales. Second, there are concerns--previously noted--about the individual scales and items selected for the scales.

Included within those concerns are lack of construct articulation, lack of construct differentiation among scales, the predominance of tears in heaven, items that are phrased in a socially undesirable direction, and langston homogeneity of item content within scales. Item phrasing and ambiguity definition the bluntness of the items (e.g., I am a violent person, from the Violence scale) would appear to invite problems with response sets. The use of truth-corrected scores to handle problems with test-taker denial cannot be fairly evaluated due to insufficient information from the developer. Last, caution in the interpretation of reported risk levels and risk level recommendations must be advised. The developer, for example, has determined that percentile scale scores falling within a given percentile interval represent a medium risk level, whereas scale scores falling within a contiguous but higher interval of poems, scores qualify for a problem risk level. There is no clarification, however, of the meaning of the labels medium and problem. Further, there are no statements regarding how the two risk levels are to be discriminated from one another, and no identification of outcomes (or probabilities of outcomes) that are tied to the miller the levels. The categorization of scores into langston famous poems, risk levels essentially amounts to canterbury implementation of poems, three cut scores on each scale. Given the developer's failure to ascertain or cope with errors of measurement, the Obsessive Compulsive, risk level interpretations and their corresponding recommendations are substantially compromised.

SUMMARY. The developers, to their credit, have produced a risk assessment instrument that can be administered, scored, and interpreted in a relatively efficient and cost-effective manner. They have considered thorny issues such as denial on the part of test-takers and gender differences in the norming process, but the differential impact of langston famous, ethnicity and age has not been addressed. An earnest attempt has been made to provide risk assessment information and recommendations that are pertinent to the demands of the criminal justice practitioner. On balance, however, the SAQ falls far short of the mark. Insufficient reliability or validity evidence exists to communication assert that the langston hughes poems, test consistently or accurately measures any of its associated constructs. There is continued doubt, in the words of the communication problems, prior reviewer of the SAQ, that the famous poems, test conveys any useful information additional to simply asking the client if they have an alcohol-drug problem, if they are violent, and how they cope with stress (Toneatto, 1995, p. 891).

Readers seeking an alternative test for a substance abusing population may wish to consider tests such as the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).

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understatement and an exaggeration (V.ii.354, 353). Song In Heaven! Further, Othello’s invocation of his own military triumphs might be seen as another example of Othello dangerously misordering his priorities. He seems to position his political reputation as his biggest concern, as he did in langston, Act III, scene iii, lines. Othello – its Appeal Let us examine the William Shakespeare drama Othello for the purpose of Compulsive Assessment determining exactly what characteristics of the play are the outstanding ones which give it such universal appeal. Othello would appear to have a beauty about langston poems, it which is hard to match. Photography, Photo Essays , and Art To submit works of photography or art, simply attach the significance of the, high resolution image file(s) to your submission form and supply a brief introduction/caption within the Cover Letter section, along with your biographical statement. Photo essay submissions should be contained. Othello Movie 'O' vs the Play Othello.

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Comparative essay - Othello/Macbeth tragic heroes. ?Coursework Unit 1: ‘Many critics have argued that Othello is not a true Shakespearean tragic hero. Explore the idea that Shakespeare intended to make Othello fit the criteria of his tragic hero with comparison to Macbeth.’ By Marina Georgallides A tragic hero, determined by Aristotle, must show a. OTHELLO (1.3.128-70) Othello refers to his love with Desdemona as the tears in heaven, only “witchcraft” he has used. (line 169) These lines set the hughes, image of the miller Othello’s past as somewhat disastrous and langston famous, dreadful. On The Copernicus! (line 134-41) Metaphor of langston hughes famous Desdemona’s ear being greedy and eating up all that Othello has. Shakespeare uses a variety of song tears aides to make his play the langston, flawless specimen it is. The most striking symbol in Othello is Desdemona's handkerchief that circulates throughout the play. Because Othello gave it to Desdemona as a first gift, the handkerchief functions as a token of ambiguity definition his love, which Desdemona cherishes.

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I found myself at communication problems in relationship work playing on the internet on sites like looking searching for homes for no reason at all. My family had always encouraged me to get my Real Estate license and famous, become. Access English Studies Unit 2 What is your response to the way Othello is presented in this play? What is there to admire, and louisiana, what are his weaknesses? In my essay I will start by looking at Othello’s change in fortune throughout the play. I will also look at langston the language throughout the Disorder Essay, play. Othello Essay Othello is a play that can still relate to modern society. The themes explored in Othello are similar to problems many people deal with today. Othello is a highly respected general in the service of Venice. Iago is Othello's ambitious friend and he is ranked under him, hoping to.

Comparative Essay - Othello and O “In the hughes poems, transformation process Othello and Spheres by Nicolas Copernicus, O deal with the same issues and ideas, but do so in different ways.” In the play ‘ Othello ’ written by William Shakespeare and the movie ‘O’ directed by Tim Nelson, many themes and issues are dealt with over langston hughes famous, the course. Othello Essay Shakespeare’s powerful play ‘ Othello ’ is an outstanding dramatic work. Othello’s first words are ‘tis better as it is’ Here Shakespeare clearly shows Othello is the man of the group and isn’t bothered. This is shown: “Tis better as it is” Othello produces a lovely, calm and unexpected. overuses the pathos approach, making his essay My Problem with Her Anger weak in the logos and ethos areas. I. Introduction TRANSITION: Use of ambiguity emotional appeals does have its benefits. II. Langston Hughes Poems! Pathos gives the reader a connection between their lives and the essay . An appeal to pathos causes an audience. ?Analysis of Exam Essays Essay Analysis – Part A After reading, reflecting and analyzing the sample responses provided, I am able to gain knowledge on the structure of an On the Copernicus, essay and the impact that sophisticated language has on how to express specific ideas and also, how to present a thorough understanding. How Far Is Iago Responsible for the Tragic Unfolding of Events in ‘Othello’? *How F*ar *I*s Iago *R*esponsible *F*or *T*he *T*ragic *U*nfolding *O*f *E*vents *I*n ‘ Othello ’? Iago is responsible for the tragic unfolding of events in ‘ Othello ’. This can be seen through his manipulation of hughes famous poems Othello , jealousy of Cassio becoming Othello’s lieutenant, hatred of women, racism and being.

Fishburne was nominated for Outstanding Lead Actor and Kenneth Branagh for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role. The movie Othello (1995) also won an award for Outstanding Motion Picture. Without a doubt, the motion picture turned the traditional theatrical play into significance louisiana a real romantic. JEALOUSY IN OTHELLO JENNIFER PUTNAM This paper was written for Dr. Brevik’s English 1102 class. Shakespeare is prominent in his use of recurring themes throughout his works, particularly those of love, death, and hughes famous poems, betrayal. All these themes are present in Othello . Most paramount, however, is jealousy. ?Toulmin Essay 3 I.)Introduction: When it comes to what specific actions should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration, they should be very active when it comes to the environment.

Especially since God created the History: On the Spheres by Nicolas, land and environment. Langston Poems! In the following essay one. Mathematics How Models and Images Can Be Used to Teach It. discuss how models and images might be used to effectively teach mental calculation. In recent times there has been a much increased emphasis on mental calculation’ (Cooke 2000:24) within primary mathematics. Louisiana Purchase! At Key Stage 1 mental methods have taken the lead in introducing numbers, place value and. Her Body Image People have presumptions of what the langston hughes famous, perfect body must look like. Caroline Heldman’s essay , “Out-of-Body- Image ” discusses how body image affects people. Through many case studies, Heldman is problems convinced that people with lower self-objectification do better in life than those with higher. “Jealousy in the play is langston hughes famous not confined to Othello”. How far and in what ways do you agree with this statement?

is a theme presented in many ways throughout Shakespeare’s “ Othello ”. Communication Problems In Relationship! However is it solely confined to the character of Othello himself or can it be seen in famous poems, other characters and other forms? This essay will explore “Jealousy” through Othello to discover whether it is the miller confined to poems, the main character himself. scenes and explore how these scenes represent ideas, situations and/or emotions that you believe transcend particular contexts. In Shakespeare’s Othello , a number of ideas, situations and emotions are closely examined that are still applicable to a modern audience, namely what it means to be human. Art Essay Guide Compare the work of two artists’ (and your own work?) You could use the document on tales, the next page to type into if easier. Refer to artist using last name! Discuss artwork NOT pieces Do not plagiarise – always reference IMPORTANT GUIDE Images – use to. Elizabethan Chivalry in a Modern Context. meaning of the word has shifted throughout the famous, last 400 years.

Much like the idea of justice, which we spoke of last week regarding Sheila T. Cavanagh’s essay on The Manliness of Virtue, the idea of chivalry has adapted with the times to moral, become indicative of a “better” quality of masculinity, just as it was. Research Paper March 6, 2015 Othello : A Tortured Soul When one thinks of the phrase “tortured soul,” most people think of a man who is being tortured without any way to relieve the pain. In William Shakespeare’s Othello , the Moor of langston hughes poems Venice, Othello is a torture soul. Othello experienced that sort of pain. ‘ Othello ’ A web of intricately interwoven lies paving the path for deep jealousy and ultimately destroying the lives of several characters is the focus of Shakespeare’s ‘ Othello ’. Tales! This tragic idea is the poems, main theme of the play and On the Revolution Heavenly Copernicus, made clear by the dramatist early in the action by the use of a. Othello: Book by William Shakespeare.

Othello Essay Othello , Shakespeare’s’ Aristotelian tragedy, plays upon a twofold focus to portray the demise of the langston hughes famous poems, general to ‘martyrdom’. Initially, the responder is drawn upon the manipulative power of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay Iago as he exposes not only the fragility of Othello , but also Roderigo, Cassio, Emilia and Desdemona.

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Essay: Democracy and development in Africa – what are the missing links? The last two decades of the langston hughes famous, 20th century witnessed renewed hope about the moral ambiguity definition, birth of democracy in Africa. The process was actively supported by most segments of society; labour, students, market women, rural dwellers, and the lumped elements, which saw in it the prospects of reversing the trend of political despair and disillusionment that hitherto, characterized political life in langston famous Africa (Adejumobi, 1999:34). History: Of The Copernicus. The orgy of langston hughes famous poems, political genuity tyranny and dictatorship while having its own clientele and beneficiaries had negative and suffocating effects on the majority of the people. The political space was contrived, entrepreneurial creativity and ingenuity stifled, and the logic of differences, of social pluralism, cultural divergences and identities, suppressed. The opening up of the political space constitutes an uncompromisable part of the democratic agenda of the African people. The democratic aspiration of the African people is not only confined to moral ambiguity definition the arena of political democracy ‘ of elections, and granting of civil and langston poems, political rights ‘ but involves the demand for economic empowerment, better living standards, and adequate social welfare. Indeed, for the majority of the people, democracy is meaningful only when it delivers socio-economic goods. In other words, political democracy must be linked to socio-economic development.

The deteriorating social welfare and living standards of the people in spite of the vote for democracy is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment gradually undermining the confidence of the people in the new democratic order. African continent thought that democracy wave will transform the continent as soon as it is introduced. The reality has dawn the continent whereby the expectations tend not to langston hughes famous poems see the light. This paper will seek to establish the missing links between democracy and development in Africa. The questions that this paper would try to answer are; i. Moral. What is the langston famous poems, correlation between democracy and socio-economic development? ii. What are the missing links between democracy and development? iii.

How can the triple elements of economic growth, equity and Obsessive Compulsive, social welfare be promoted in langston a democratic order? This study would pin-point the missing links between democracy and development. These links are the main ones that make democracy impossible in terms of History: On the Revolution, its application to Africa. As a result, this will contribute in terms of provision of langston hughes poems, important information for use by louisiana policy makers in planning, designing, and implementation and evaluation of policies and strategies both in the public and langston hughes poems, private sectors. This study reviews two categories of literature ‘ Democracy data and Development data that has been done by ambiguity definition other scholars that is relevant to langston poems the study. In this literature, the main contending issues in this literature revolve around the Democracy ‘ Development Debate. The intellectual debate on the linkage between democracy and development has witnessed some twists and turns driven by the currents of global political changes.

In the 1960s and 1970s before the current democratic upsurge, the focus of the debate on song the connection between democracy and development was on hughes poems how the latter constitutes a prerequisite for and enhances the significance purchase, former. That is langston famous poems under what mode of economic system and stage of economic is development and democracy consummated? Conversely, under what form of economic system is democracy not likely to take root and grow? The economy was treated as an moral ambiguity independent variable and the polity, dependent. The attempt was to explain why democracy exists in some countries and not in others. The two dominant intellectual paradigms in the social sciences all this period, the modernization and the Marxist theories, share a common ground on hughes poems the interface between democracy and tales the miller, development, albeit from different standpoints. The modernization theory contends that democracy corresponds with the industrial phase of capitalist development . Capitalist development promotes features like structural differentiation, secularism, bureaucratization, urbanization and individualism, all of which engenders a new logic of power and ‘ethics of governance’, of liberal democratic politics. Langston Poems. The social structure which industrial capitalism foists reinforces democratic values. Liberal democracy is viewed as an outcome, and not a cause of economic development.

In the Marxist and Neo-Marxist conception, the centrality of the economy to the mode of communication, politics was also emphasized. The economy was considered as the sub-structure of langston famous poems, society, which determines the superstructure that includes the polity. As such, liberal democracy was conceived as the Heavenly Spheres, limited form of democracy possible under industrial capitalism. ‘Backward’ and agrarian societies do not have the prerequisites for democratic practices. Neo-Marxist paradigm prioritizes the issues of economic underdevelopment and dependency as the famous, prime political agenda for Third World countries to resolve. Essentially, the effect of the intellectual currents of the 1960s and 1970s was a de-prioritization of significance of the louisiana, democracy on the agenda of the Third World countries. Democracy was considered a secondary priority for these countries, since in any case it could hardly evolve in those contexts. The concern was to langston hughes be with the issue of economic development, after which democracy may logically follow. This was the intellectual crest on which political dictatorship and military rule were justified in Africa. Indeed, military rulers in Africa were eulogized by Western civil-military relations’ experts as ‘modernizing soldiers.’ Thus, the ideology of development adopted by Revolution of the Heavenly most African rulers was a ‘dictatorship of development’, rather than the ‘democratization of langston poems, development.’ Development became a political clich?? over and above which no other thing suffices. From the 1980s when a new tide of global democratic change resonated in most parts of the world, the emphasis of academic discourse on the linkage between democracy and development shifted to the object and the purposes of democracy.

That is, is democracy to be constructed as a means to an end or an end in Compulsive Assessment itself? The debate centered on what Adrian Leftwich calls the development efficacy of democracy (Leftwich, 1996:4). The new discourse privileges democracy and politics as the primary factor in economic development. Langston Hughes Famous. It turns the old argument on its head, by ambiguity repudiating the theoretical prejudice that democracy is an outcome of a particular economic system and poems, stage of development, which can be found in some societies and not in others. Communication Problems. Democracy assumes a universal political product. The new debate centers on whether democracy is the cause and major facilitator of economic development. Democracy has become the independent variable, and economic development, dependent. The political import is that democracy can now be accepted, tolerated and promoted for all societies. But the langston hughes, nexus between democracy and canterbury tales, development remains contestable even in the present conjuncture. To some, liberal democracy has a symmetrical relationship with economic development. On the one hand, liberal democracy provides the basic foundations for economic development.

Libertarian values of freedom of speech and association, the rule of law, multipartyism and elections, the protection of human rights and separation of powers create the institutional context and langston famous, processes for economic development to take place. It provides economic empowerment, provides a stable investment climate, and ensures rapid mobilization of national energies and resources for economic development. For Africa it is of the Heavenly Spheres Copernicus pointed out that countries like Botswana and Mauritius with fast and stable economic growth rates have stable liberal democratic polity. Between 1965 and hughes famous, 1990, the rate of growth of the Gross National Product (GNP) per capita for Botswana and Mauritius was 8.4% and 3.2% respectively. These figures are contrasted with that of no-democratic polities like the Republic of the Congo (previously Zaire) and Nigeria (then under military rule), which had growth rates of -2.2% and 0.1% respectively for the same period. On the other hand, economic growth is seen as a sin qua non for History: On the of the Heavenly democratic stability and consolidation (but not necessarily it evolution). Scholars like Siymour Lipset (1960) , Samuel Huntington (1997) and Adam Przeworski et al. (1997) . Famous. Adam et al. contends that economic parameters like per capita income, rate of inflation, and level for income inequality are key elements in the sustainability of democracy. Their findings revealed that countries with less than $1,000 per capita income often have very fragile democracies, while those above $6,000 often have democratic resilience.

In their conclusion, they hypothesized that democracy can be expected to last an average of about 8.5 years in a country with per capita income under $1,000 per annum, 16 years in Obsessive Assessment Essay one with between $1,000 and $2,000, 33 years between $2,000 and $4,000 and 100 years between $4,000 to $6,000 (Adam Przeworski et al. Hughes Famous Poems. 1997: 297). India is History: On the Spheres by Nicolas Copernicus considered to langston be a rare exception to the rule on the linkage between democracy, economic development and poverty. The contrapuntal view to the above argues that creating a symmetrical linkage between democracy and economic development is to overburden democracy. Democracy is conceived to significance be a worthy political project in itself and should not be forcibly associated with economic development.

The political context and rights which democracy provides are ends in themselves, which make for human happiness in society. The rights to free speech, association and so on are quite crucial to man and may not necessarily lead to material betterment. For example in a statistical study of about 130 countries on the linkage between democracy and economic development, Svante Ersson and hughes poems, Jan-Erik Lane (1996: 45-73) concluded that there is need for caution in linking democracy with economic development. Communication In Relationship. They assert that the correlation between democracy and economic growth is very weak, so also is the correlation between democracy and income redistribution. Indeed, Marx Gasiorowski argues that political democracy may have a negative impact on macro-economic performance especially in developing countries.

He suggests that democracy engender high inflation rate and langston hughes poems, slower economic growth in underdeveloped countries as a result of Heavenly, unrestrained competition for resources and pressures for fiscal deficits (Gasiorowski, 2000: 319-349). As such, the langston poems, nature of a political regime may not necessarily determine the rate of economic growth and development in a country. Authoritarian regimes in History: Heavenly some countries have shown remarkable resilience for economic discipline and hughes famous, structural reforms, and thereby engineered tremendous economic growth in their countries. The bureaucratic authoritarian model in Latin America in significance purchase the 1970s and 1980s and the development authoritarian regimes in East Asia in the 1980s and early 1990s are instructive in this regard. What makes a difference in economic development therefore as Adrian (1996) argues is not the regime type or mode of political governance, but the nature of the state. According to him, the type of the state, whether developmental or not, is quite crucial to the object of hughes, economic development. For economic development to take place in a country, the state must be a developmental state. In order to marry the twin goals of democracy and development for Third World countries, what these countries need is a developmental democracy, a democratic state that is also developmental. Evidently, the relationship between democracy and development is at best a very complex one.

Also, there are inherent tensions and contradictions between the two lofty goals. Tears In Heaven. The truth is that there are missing links or gaps between democracy and development, which have to be addressed before the former, can achieve the latter. Bibliography (Chicago Reference Style) Abdul, R. and Tajudeen, L., Democracy and Development, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) Adejumobi, S., ‘Elections in Africa: A Fading Shadow of Democracy’? International Political Science Review, Vol.21, No. 1, January, pp.

59-75. Adekanye, B., The Theory of the Modernizing Soldier, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978). pp. 29-40. Adrian, F., ‘Structural Adjustment and Democratic Transition in Africa,’ Verfassung Und Recht in Ubersee. Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Vol.29, No. Poems. 4, pp. 415-433. Ake, C., Democracy and Development in Africa, (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1996). pp.

45-49. Gasiorowski, M., ‘Democracy and Macroeconomic Performance in song Underdeveloped Countries: An Empirical Analysis’ Comparative Political Studies, Vol.33, April, pp. 319-349. Huntington, S. ‘Democracy for the long Haul’, in L. Diamond, M. Plattner, Y. Langston Hughes Famous Poems. Chu and H. Tien (eds) Consolidating the Third Wave of Democracies: Themes and Perspectives, (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997) Lipset, S., The Political Man, (London: Heinemann, 1960)

Przeworski, A., What Makes Democracies Endure? In L. diamond et al. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies:Themes and canterbury tales the miller, Perspectives, (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997) United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, (Washington:UNDP, 2000) Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Politics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Langston Hughes Famous. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Politics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

This Politics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to significance louisiana purchase provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Democracy and hughes, development in Africa – what are the missing links? . Tears In Heaven. Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on langston poems the link below to request removal: 01-08-17 - Theory of the post-colonial state 29-05-17 - Chechnya and Ingushetia 21-12-16 - Libya 17-11-16 - Coalition building in communication the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu 06-11-16 - Relationship between Hong Kong and China - Has China’s increased presence in Africa has influenced Norwegian aid policies - The Arab Spring - The United Nations 05-11-16 - Governance of traditional societies 04-11-16 - RELIANCE ON MASS MOBILIZATION AND COLLECTIVE ACTION. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and famous, coursework writing service.

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