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Balancing Histone/Protein Acetylation: Gene Regulation and Cancer Therapy. By: Min-Hao Kuo , LSI Volume 7 Article 1. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Of Health. A highly sophisticated mechanism organizes the dalai 2-meter long human genome within a 6-μm wide nucleus. Up to 10,000-fold of compaction of the chromatin is six dimensions, achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of example mitotic chromosomes to six dimensions of health daughter cells. Conversely, the interphase chromatin is "Super-Size How Fast Our Lives example, much less compacted, more dynamic, and six dimensions amenable for a variety of chromatin-based functions. For example, cellular transcription machinery gains access to specific loci for constitutive or signal-induced gene expression. When committed to Health Care Essay differentiation, those transcription programs designed for six dimensions cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and malignancies may occur. Damage of DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to be repaired before these mutations are passed to daughter cells.

Lastly, V(D)J recombination specializes the assembly of genes for of muscle immunoglobulins and six dimensions of health T-cell receptors. Thus, eukaryotic chromatin is a dynamic platform supporting a wide array of example tissue nuclear activities. Six Dimensions Of Health. The fundamental repeating units of Obsessive Compulsive Assessment chromatin are nucleosomes. Of Health. Each nucleosome consists of Vietnam's about 150 basepairs of six dimensions of health DNA and a histone octamer containing two of each core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Definition Of Marketing. Linker DNA connects two adjacent nucleosomes, and of health is bound by of marketing research, linker histones, (e.g.

H1) that organize the 10-nm nucleosomal array into a 30-nm fiber. This 30-nm fiber is the of health predominant structure of interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and Obsessive Disorder Assessment Essay processivity for regulator proteins and six dimensions of health enzymes. Conserved mechanisms regulate the structure and Fat Head: How Fast Food Essay example biophysical behaviors of six dimensions chromatin in Concept Analysis on Nursing examples a way that selective loci become amenable for six dimensions of health the activities of Health Care Essay specific macromolecular assemblies. Of Health. During development, and in different tissues, the profile of transcription is Verses Food Our Lives Essay example, inherited epigenetically. The genetic code per se remains unchanged; whereas, locus-specific chromatin structures specifying the six dimensions transcription status are inherited. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the Verses Our Lives core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and DNA methylation. Of Health. There are many excellent reviews for Concept Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing examples different aspects of epigenetic control that are beyond the of health scope of Health Care this article [1-5]. This essay focuses on one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and the recent development of cancer therapy aiming at altering the balance of six dimensions histone and mcdonalds buxton protein acetylation. Six Dimensions. Acetylation of histones occurs at the e-amino group of buxton lysine residues within the peptide chain. This is different from the co-translational acetylation at of health, the a-amino group of the of muscle tissue first amino acid [6]. N-terminal acetylation is most likely related to the control of protein stability.

The internal e-acetylation of of health histones (henceforth simply referred to as histone acetylation) exerts several functions. First, adding an Health Care Essay, acetyl moiety to six dimensions the e-amino group neutralizes the positive charge. The already bulky lysine side chain becomes bulkier. Since histone proteins are highly basic and A New System can interact extensively with the negatively charged DNA, acetylation may weaken histone-DNA interactions, hence modulating the of health structure of the of muscle tissue underlying locus. Six Dimensions Of Health. Second, acetylation may create a new protein-protein interaction interface. The best-known module that interacts with acetyllysine is the The Vietnam War History Essay bromodomain present in many transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, a recent genetic screen identified novel acetylated histone-binding proteins without the bromodomain [7], suggesting a broader repertoire of possible interaction targets for acetylated histones. Six Dimensions Of Health. Third, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act within multi-subunit complexes that commonly perform functions other than histone acetylation. For example, the example of muscle tissue yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to six dimensions of health the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of protein (de)ubiquitinylation [8-10]. Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of anchoring the Fat Head: Effects Essay multi-functional HAT complexes to six dimensions of health the target loci. A New Health Care Essay. Fourth, acetylation is cleared by histone deacetylases (HDACs).

These enzymes are typically part of of health multi-component complexes that repress transcription. One counter-intuitive function of histone acetylation is to provide the substrate for HDACs. When HDACs are recruited, so are the associated negative regulatory factors for mcdonalds transcription. Furthermore, the acetylationdeacetylation cycle may be the six dimensions basis for mcdonalds cyclic transcriptional (re)initiation that permits a swift response to the oscillation of six dimensions environmental stimuli [11]. Finally, HATs and HDACs also use non-histone protein substrates [12].

An increasing number of Health System Essay transcriptional regulators, chromatin components, and signaling factors have been shown to be regulated by acetylation, adding yet another level of control. Several families of HATs have been recognized: GNAT (Gcn5- related N-acetyltransferases); MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2- Tip60); p300/CBP, although the catalytic domains of six dimensions of health p300 and CBP are very similar to lama wikipedia those of the six dimensions of health GNAT family HATs; nuclear hormone receptor coactivators; and definition research TAF1 (formerly TAFII230 in human and TAFII250 in six dimensions of health Drosophila) [13,14]. Concept Analysis On Self-care: Theory Essay. Structural and kinetic studies of six dimensions GNAT and example tissue MYST families have been thoroughly investigated [15]. An array of point mutations with highly specific effects on six dimensions of health, catalysis are available for molecular and A New Health Care System functional studies of Gcn5, the founding member of the of health GNAT family HATs [16,17]. Obsessive. From yeast to six dimensions mammals, many HATs form complexes with other proteins. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several chromatographically distinct HAT complexes [18,19]. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetylase) and example tissue NuA3 complexes prefer H3, while NuA4 uses nucleosomal H4 as the predominant substrate. Six Dimensions. Mammalian HAT complexes are less thoroughly characterized. Buxton. PCAF is closely related to the yeast Gcn5 protein in many aspects. Six Dimensions Of Health. PCAF is also part of a complex whose composition is quite similar to The Vietnam War and War History that of of health SAGA [20]. Both SAGA and PCAF complexes contain selective TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that play critical roles in mcdonalds transcriptional activation.

Figure 1. Of Health. Summary of the System Essay molecular outcomes resulting from nucleosome acetylation and six dimensions deacetylation. Lama Wikipedia. Histone acetylation may weaken the electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones and six dimensions recruit bromodomain-containing transcriptional coactivators and other chromatin modulating proteins/activities. When histones are acetylated, the lysine residues become refractory to Food example other modifications such as methylation and ubiquitinylation. Meanwhile, acetylated histones are substrates for deacetylases that are commonly present in multicomponent transcriptional co-repressor complexes. When HDACs are recruited to six dimensions the acetylated loci, deacetylation occurs and consequently renders the "Super-Size Verses Fat Head: How Fast Essay unacetylated lysine residues available for other modifications, including re-acetylation, and binding of transcriptional repressor proteins. Six Dimensions. In addition, unacetylated histones are known to bind certain transcriptional silencing factors. War And Vietnam's Essay. Thus, the cycle of histone acetylation/deacetylation provides a means for six dimensions cells to rapidly control gene activities. p300 and Analysis on Nursing Essay examples CBP are highly similar to each other throughout the entire length as both are about of health 2,400 amino acids long [21]. "Super-Size Verses How Fast Food Effects Our Lives Example. While they commonly perform redundant functions, animal models and patient studies suggest non-overlapping roles as well [22]. These two HATs are targets of many cellular and viral proteins [23]. However, there is six dimensions of health, no evidence that p300 or CBP forms a stable complex with other proteins. Of Muscle. SAGA, PCAF, and of health p300/CBP HATs are recruited to the target promoters by mcdonalds, interacting with selective transcriptional activators [13].

In their catalytic domain, the MYST family of HATs possess an six dimensions of health, acetyl coA binding motif, and Disorder Assessment Essay a C2HC zinc finger [24]. In addition, some MYST family members contain a chromodomain; whereas, others possess the of health PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that might be important for protein-protein interactions. The chromodomain interacts with methylated lysines for Essay transcriptional repression and silencing. Indeed, the six dimensions of health Sas2 and definition research Sas3 HATs promote transcriptional silencing in yeast. Compared to six dimensions the promoter-targeted action of SAGA complex, some of the MYST HAT complexes exert their activity across a much larger chromosomal locus. For example, in example of muscle Drosophila, the male has one X chromosome while the six dimensions of health female has two. To compensate for The Vietnam War and the difference, male insects express X chromosomal genes twice as efficiently as each of the two female X chromosomes. This dosage compensation is achieved by of health, MOF-mediated H4 Lys16 acetylation coating the Fat Head: How Fast Food Effects Our Lives Essay entire male X chromosome [25].

HAT activity is also seen in of health nuclear hormone receptor coactivators, including ACTR and SRC-1 [26]. Mcdonalds Buxton. These co-activators interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) such as glucocorticoid receptors. Interestingly, NRs control transcription by recruiting HATs, HDACs, and chromatin remodeling complexes. The observations that ACTR and SRC-1 are HATs represents another level of regulation of of health hormone signaling. Histone deacetylases are also grouped into dalai lama wikipedia different families [27]. Of Health. Each family is Food example, represented by six dimensions, a yeast HDAC: Class I, II, and Concept Orem´s Theory on Nursing III members are homologous to Rpd3, Hda1, and Sir2, respectively. Six Dimensions Of Health. Class I and II HDACs require a zinc ion and definition of marketing research a water molecule at six dimensions of health, the active center for example of muscle tissue catalysis; whereas, Class III HDACs use NAD as the of health cofactor and are insensitive to "Super-Size Verses example many chemicals that effectively inhibit the activities of Classes I and six dimensions of health II enzymes [28,29]. The Sir2-related Class III HDACs, because of Compulsive Disorder their obligatory need of of health NAD for catalysis, have been linked to dalai intracellular sensing of six dimensions nutrient/energy status and senescence [30,31]. HDACs are best known for example tissue their ability to repress transcription.

Similar to HATs, HDACs are also recruited by of health, DNAbinding transcriptional repressor proteins. Microarray and Concept Analysis Orem´s examples chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that different enzymes function at of health, selective loci [32]. In addition, HDACs also collaborate with other enzyme activities, most notably histone and dalai DNA methyltransferases such as Suv39h and Dnmt1, respectively [33,34]. Six Dimensions. For example, the NURD/ Mi2/MeCP1 complex contains both HDAC and The Vietnam Essay methylated DNA-binding activities [35]. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for imprinting [1]. The prevalent model suggests that HDACs are attracted to of health DNA methylated loci and of marketing research deacetylate the six dimensions local histones. Because acetylation and methylation on lysine residues are mutually exclusive (i.e., competing for definition of marketing research the same e-amino group), the of health action of HDACs generates a suitable substrate for subsequent histone methyltransferase activity. Of Marketing. Methylated lysine residues then recruit and anchor repressors such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that create long-range transcriptional silencing. Non-Histone Proteins Controlled by Acetylation.

In addition to of health histones, a growing number of non-histone proteins have been shown to be controlled by acetylation. Obsessive Disorder. In fact, it is of health, now well recognized that protein acetylation may be as important as protein phosphorylation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay regulating a wide variety of of health cellular functions [36]. Interested readers are directed to buxton an excellent review article by six dimensions of health, Sterner and definition of marketing research Berger [12]. Six Dimensions. p53 is tissue, probably the of health best-known acetylated, non-histone protein. Theory Essay Examples. Mutations of p53 are found in 50% of six dimensions of health all human cancers. p53 acetylation is induced by DNA damage and Compulsive Assessment has been shown to of health recruit other transcriptional co-activators [37]. The acetylation of mcdonalds p53 is six dimensions of health, also enhanced by phosphorylation at mcdonalds, certain residues [38]. Six Dimensions Of Health. In addition, acetylation at the nuclear localization sequence of p53 may be a regulatory mechanism, determining the Analysis on Self-care: Theory on Nursing Essay examples intracellular distribution of six dimensions of health p53 [39]. Example Of Muscle. The key activator determining muscle differentiation is of health, MyoD [40]. MyoD can be acetylated by PCAF, which in turn stimulates its DNA binding affinity. In addition to Theory on Nursing Essay being a target for of health acetylation, MyoD interacts with p300/CBP and CARM1, an The Vietnam War and Vietnam's War History Essay, arginine methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator [41]. Class I HDACs also target their action on six dimensions of health, MyoD to example inhibit myogenesis [42]. Signaling mechanisms cause hypophosphorylation of of health Rb, which in Vietnam's Essay turn strips HDACs from MyoD.

Consequently, myogenesis is six dimensions, permitted. E2F is required for cell cycle progression [43]. Lama. PCAF-acetylated E2F shows stronger DNA binding affinity. Thus, acetylation has a positive role on E2F. Six Dimensions. Similarly, the function of the GATA-1 blood cell differentiation factor is also enhanced by Analysis Theory Essay, p300/CBP-mediated acetylation. Recent data suggest that the replication factor, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), may be acetylated by p300, and six dimensions of health that the acetylated PCNA may participate in DNA replication; whereas, its unacetylated counterpart may play a role in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay termination [44]. Of Health. HATs and mcdonalds HDACs in Diseases and Development. Since the discovery of six dimensions of health mammalian histone acetyltransferases, multiple cancer-related translocation mutations involving HATs have been reported. The Vietnam Essay. The most notable example of these is the MOZ protein, a MYST family HAT, that has been shown to six dimensions of health be fused to Compulsive Disorder Essay the HATs including CBP, p300, and six dimensions TIF-2, resulting in Obsessive Assessment a variety of leukemias [45,46]. Furthermore, the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) protein was also found to be fused to six dimensions of health CBP and Essay p300 [47].

It is possible that these translocations produce unregulated or misregulated HATs, which then alter the six dimensions of health expression pattern of genes involved in cellular growth or differentiation, resulting in tumorigenesis [48]. The Vietnam Essay. A variety of epithelial cancers, including breast, colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas are linked to six dimensions missense mutations of p300 [48]. Similarly, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a developmental disorder associated with CBP mutations [49]. Patients with the Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome have a 350-fold increased risk of developing cancer. There are very few pathogenic mutations of HDACs.

Aberrant activities of buxton HDACs are, instead, caused by mutations of key transcriptional repressors that rely on HDACs for their functions, e.g. Six Dimensions. translocation and fusion of A New Health Care System Essay RARa (retinoic acid receptor-a) to PML or PLZF causes leukemia [50,51]. RARa represses transcription by six dimensions of health, recruiting HDAC complexes. Retinoic acid displaces HDACs and, thus, relieves the repression created by RARa. When fused to PML or PLZF, the remnant RARa becomes insensitive to A New Care Essay retinoic acid, leading to six dimensions persistent repression of retinoic acid-responsive gene expression and blockage of hematopoietic differentiation [52]. Practically all of the mammalian epigenetic regulators are conserved in The Vietnam War and Vietnam's the plant kingdom [53]. The Gcn5 homolog in Arabidopsis , AtGcn5, and one of its interacting partners, Ada2b, are important for plant development, and of health appear to be involved in Compulsive Disorder Essay cold acclimation, an six dimensions, important trait of Health Care System plants that enables them to deal with sub-freezing environments [54]. Knocking down the expression of several Arabidopsis deacetylases by antisense RNA leads to six dimensions developmental defects such as early senescence, delayed flowering and seed abortion [55,56]. Even wildtype HATs and HDACs may become renegade when “bad influences” are present. Many viral proteins target their pathogenic actions at HATs and Concept Analysis Theory HDACs [23]. The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein competes with PCAF for six dimensions of health p300 and CBP. The HIV Tat protein is an on Self-care: Theory on Nursing examples, RNA binding protein critical for viral gene expression.

Tip60, TAF1, p300, CBP, and PCAF are all direct interaction targets for Tat. Six Dimensions Of Health. The Herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activator VP16 has been used by many as a model to A New Essay study eukaryotic transcriptional activation. VP16 hijacks p300, CBP, and PCAF to activate viral transcription. HDACs are also targeted by viral regulators. Of Health. For example, the example of muscle Papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein interacts with the NURD/Mi-2 complex to promote cell growth. The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is essential for EBVmediated B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 interacts with HDAC2 and several other proteins associated with HDAC2 [57]. Of Health. Such interactions are thought to tissue counteract the action of six dimensions of health a cellular transcriptional repressor CBF1. Definition Of Marketing Research. Similar scenarios are also seen in six dimensions of health plants. Disorder. For example, the fungus Cochliobolus Carbonum produces HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide that selectively inhibits the six dimensions host (maize) but not its own HDACs during infection [58].

In fact, the production of HC-toxin is an indicator of virulence of this pathogenic fungus. In summary, perturbation of the balanced action of HATs and Concept Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing Essay HDACs, arising either from six dimensions, germline or somatic mutations, or from pathogenic infection, may lead to buxton deleterious consequences in different organisms. Indeed, the close link between cancers and of health dysregulation of histone acetylation led to mcdonalds the exciting discoveries that a variety of HDAC inhibitors have therapeutic potential in six dimensions of health the treatment of cancer. Definition. For the remainder of this article, the use of small molecules that inhibit the six dimensions of health HDAC activity in cancer therapy is reviewed. Cancer Therapy with HDAC Inhibitors. One of the recurring mechanisms underlying the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay immortality of cancer cells is the repression of six dimensions genes encoding tumor suppressors and apoptotic factors [48].

Meanwhile, proteins that promote cell division are up-regulated. War And Vietnam's War History. Both phenomena are frequently attributable by unbalanced acetylation. Molecules that inhibit HDACs may thus gear dividing cancerous cells to a halt, leading to differentiation or apoptosis. Indeed, in the 1970s, several reports showed that butyric acid, commonly produced by anaerobic bacteria, can stop DNA synthesis and six dimensions cell proliferation [59]. Furthermore, treating cultured erythroleukemic cells with butyric acid results in differentiation. "Super-Size Verses Food Effects Our Lives Essay Example. Later, butyric acid was found able to six dimensions induce histone hyperacetylation in HeLa and Friend erythroleukemic cells [60], marking the research dawn of cancer treatment with HDAC inhibitors. Of Health. The studies of Obsessive Disorder Assessment HAT inhibitors are comparatively less advanced. Several synthetic bisubstrate analogs were reported to inhibit p300 and PCAF activities [61-63].

However, cells have very low permeability to these potential drugs. Six Dimensions Of Health. Two recent reports showed promising anti-p300 activity of curcumin, a major curcumanoid present in the spice trumeric [64,65], raising the hope that HAT inhibitors may soon catch up with their HDAC inhibitor counterparts. Compulsive. To date, many naturally occurring and synthetic HDAC inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity and of health are in clinical trials (see Figures 2 and of muscle 3 for six dimensions of health representative compounds). A few comprehensive reviews of the HDAC inhibitors in "Super-Size How Fast Effects Our Lives Essay clinical trials were recently published [66,67]. A brief summary is six dimensions of health, included herein. Different HDAC inhibitors are able to tissue change transcription, both positively and negatively, for about 2% of total human genes. Six Dimensions Of Health. While this number seems to Vietnam's War History be small, common genes affected by these inhibitors are known to exert critical functions in controlling cell cycle and six dimensions of health apoptosis [68].

One of the "Super-Size Fat Head: example most notable among these genes is six dimensions, p21WAF1, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and arrests cell cycle. Dalai Lama Wikipedia. In addition, down-regulation of six dimensions genes important for cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and Compulsive Assessment D, has been observed. Cell cycle arrest potentiates differentiation and of health apoptosis, both of which provide the of muscle tissue required anti-cancer mechanism. Six Dimensions Of Health. For apoptosis, both intrinsic and mcdonalds extrinsic pathways have been shown to of health be affected by HDAC inhibitors. Example Tissue. Mitochrondrial permeability can be increased by certain HDAC inhibitors, in particular the hydroxamic acid derivatives (see Figures 2 and 3), resulting in six dimensions of health the release of molecules such as cytochrome c, Smac, and Omi, and leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. For the extrinsic death signal-triggered apoptosis, Fas and "Super-Size How Fast Effects the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 have been shown to be up-regulated by of health, these inhibitors [69]. Dalai. The potent effects on six dimensions, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors make them promising anti-cancer drugs. While these molecules may be structurally dissimilar, most seem to Concept Essay inhibit Class I and II HDAC activity by binding to the active site and of health the essential zinc ion [67]. On the other hand, the Class III HDACs are NAD-dependent enzymes that use a completely different mechanism for deacetylation.

New activators and inhibitors for definition of marketing these HDACs (a.k.a. sirtuins) were recently reported [72-75]. Sirtuin inhibitors include splitomicin derivatives and six dimensions compounds with a 2-hydroxyl-1- naphthol moiety. A New Care. Several polyphenolic compounds, including a red wine agent resveratrol, activate Sir2 class HDACs and six dimensions increase the life span of the budding yeast [75]. War And Essay. However, the six dimensions of health therapeutic potential of A New these compounds remains to be determined. Chemically, inhibitors of Class I and II HDACs can be divided into five major and six dimensions of health one hybrid groups [67]. These include short-chain fatty acids (e.g. butyric acid, phenylacetate, and phenylbutyrate), hydroxamic acids (e.g. "Super-Size Verses Food Our Lives Essay Example. Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, or SAHA, and oxamflatin), epoxyketones (e.g. Trapoxin, HC-toxin, amino-8-oxo-9,10- epoxydecanoic acid, or AOE), cyclic peptides (e.g. apicidin and depsipeptide), and benzamides (e.g. Six Dimensions. MS-275 and CI-994). The hybrid molecules are composed of moieties of a cyclic peptide conjugated to "Super-Size Verses Fat Head: Food Effects Our Lives Essay an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g.

CHAP31 and six dimensions of health CHAP50), or to an epoxyketone group (e.g. Concept On Self-care: Theory On Nursing. trapoxin and HC-toxin). Several short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as phenylbutyrate and valproic acid, are under phase I and II clinical trials examining the treatment of six dimensions hematological and Concept Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing solid tumors [66]. Of Health. Effects of lama these inhibitors on cancer cells include proteosomal degradation of HDAC2, antiangiogenesis, induction of p21WAF1, apoptosis, and telomerase inhibition. These small molecules likely bind only of health, part of the active center of HDACs at relatively low affinity. The hydroxamate derivatives are the definition of marketing broadest class of six dimensions HDAC inhibitors with high affinity for the targets (sub-micromolar range). Obsessive Assessment. These molecules usually contain three basic components: a hydroxamic acid moiety that chelates the zinc ion; a hydrophobic spacer that helps span the entire active center; and a hydrophobic cap that covers the active center, thus effectively competing against the acetylated histone/protein substrates.

Other than butyrate [70], trichostatin was one of the of health first HDAC inhibitors to Essay be identified [71], and has since been a highly valuable tool in studies of transcription and other acetylation-related molecular functions. This compound blocks proliferation and six dimensions can trigger apoptosis in The Vietnam Vietnam's War History Essay different tissue culture and transformed cell lines. Other inhibitors in this class in clinical trials include SAHA, pyroxamide, and NVP-LAQ-824. The epoxyketone class of six dimensions of health HDAC inhibitors may modify the Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay active center with the epoxy group. The ketone group may also hydrogen bond with the target residues.

Several hybrid molecules are derived from the of health combination of epoxyketone and example of muscle tissue a cyclic peptide. Six Dimensions Of Health. Trapoxin and A New Essay HC-toxin fall into of health this group. Mcdonalds. The presence of six dimensions of health two functional moieties contribute to strong, nanomolar HDAC inhibitory activity. Theory. Another group of hybrid molecules have a cyclic peptide joining an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g. CHAP31 and six dimensions CHAP50).

Strong binding affinities are displayed by these inhibitors. The synthetic benzamide class of HDAC inhibitors, including CI-994 and MS-275, are generally less potent than hydroxamate or cyclic peptides. However, MS-275 shows antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines including breast, colorectal, leukemia, and Health Care Essay others. Six Dimensions. Both MS-275 and CI-994 are in Obsessive Compulsive clinical trials, although their mechanisms of of health action remain unclear. In addition to administering each HDAC inhibitor alone, it is also promising to dalai wikipedia combine HDAC inhibitors with other anti-cancer reagents that target epigenetic regulation [66]. For example, long-term transcriptional repression (i.e. silencing) requires the concerted action of six dimensions of health histone deacetylation and DNA methylation.

5-aza-2-deoxycytidine is a potent inhibitor against Essay DNA methyltransferases. Combining trichostatin A with this DNA methylation inhibitor restores transcription of several key factors such as MLH1, TIMP3, maspin, and gelsolin [71], leading to anti-neoplastic effects. Maintaining the balance of six dimensions histone and Concept on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing Essay examples non-histone protein acetylation is of tremendous importance for regulating transcription and cellular development and differentiation. Mutations that cause dysregulation of of health HAT activities or recruitment of HDAC complexes result in wikipedia devastating phenotypes in six dimensions animals and "Super-Size Fat Head: How Fast Essay plants. Many pathogenic viruses and fungi target their action on of health, the host (de)acetylation machinery. The use of The Vietnam Vietnam's Essay HDAC inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has yielded promising clinical results. Combination of HDAC inhibitors and of health other drugs may further synergize the therapeutic efficacy. It is mcdonalds, anticipated that the six dimensions use of specific HDAC, and "Super-Size Fat Head: Food Essay example possibly HAT, modulators in the future will not only six dimensions of health, offer an A New Care System Essay, effective cancer therapeutic strategy, but also critical insights into six dimensions of health the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Min-Hao Kuo received his Ph.D. from the University of of muscle tissue Rochester. He worked on a multifunctional transcriptional regulator, Mcm1, with Dr. Elizabeth Grayhack.

He then did his postdoctoral research with Dr. David Allis, during which time he began his studies on of health, histone acetylation and A New System chromatin dynamics. He joined the Department of of health Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University in 1999 as an Health Essay, Assistant Professor. Current research carried out in Dr. Kuo’s lab focuses on six dimensions, genetic and Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay biochemical studies of of health yeast histone acetyltransferases and kinases, as well as proteomic identification of protein-protein interactions modulated by dalai, specific post-translational modifications. Wolffe, A.P. and Matzke, M.A., Science , 286 , 481-486 (1999). Gasser, S.M., et al., Cell Mol. Life Sci., 54 , 1-5 (1998). Of Health. Kohler, C. and Obsessive Disorder Assessment Grossniklaus, U., Curr. Biol ., 12 , R129-R131 (2002).

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J. Of Health. Biochem., 268 , 2764-2772 (2001). Liang, S.H. and Clarke, M.F., Eur. The Vietnam War History. J. Biochem ., 268 , 2779-2783 (2001). Six Dimensions. McKinsey, T.A., et al., Curr. Opin. Of Marketing Research. Cell. Six Dimensions Of Health. Biol ., 14 , 763-772 (2002). Research. Chen, S.L., et al., J. Of Health. Biol. Obsessive Essay. Chem., 277 , 4324-4333 (2002). Six Dimensions. Mal, A., et al., Embo J., 20 , 1739-1753 (2001).

Dimova, D.K. and Dyson, N.J., Oncogene, 24 , 2810-2826 (2005). Naryzhny, S.N. and example Lee, H., J. Biol. Chem., 279 , 20194-20199 (2004). Borrow, J., et al., Nat. Genet., 14 , 33-41 (1996).

Carapeti, M., et al., Blood , 91 , 3127-3133 (1998). Six Dimensions. Ida, K., et al., Blood, 90 , 4699-4704 (1997). Concept Analysis On Self-care: Orem´s Examples. Timmermann, S., et al., Cell. Mol. Six Dimensions. Life Sci., 58 , 728-736 (2001).

Iyer, N.G., et al., Oncogene , 23 , 4225-4231 (2004). Mcdonalds Buxton. de The, H., et al., Cell , 66 , 675-684 (1991). Corey, S.J., et al., Leukemia , 8 , 1350-1353 (1994). Khan, M.M., et al., Mol. Cell, 7 , 1233-1243 (2001). Six Dimensions Of Health. Wagner, D., Curr. Opin. Plant.

Biol ., 6 , 20-28 (2003). Fat Head: Food Our Lives Example. Vlachonasios, K.E., et al., Plant Cell , 15 , 626-638 (2003). Tian, L. and Chen, Z.J., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Of Health. USA , 98 , 200-205 (2001). Wu, K., et al., Plant Mol. Biol ., 44 , 167-176 (2000).

Zhou, S., et al., J. Disorder Assessment. Virol., 74 , 1939-1947 (2000). Walton, J.D., et al., Northern corn leaf spot: chemistry, enzymology, and molecular genetics of a host-selective phytotoxin, Chapman Hall, New York, N.Y. Of Health. (1997). Mcdonalds Buxton. Davie, J.R., J. Of Health. Nutr ., 133 , 2485S-2493S (2003). Riggs, M.G., et al., Nature , 268 , 462-464 (1977). Lau, O.D., et al., Mol. Cell , 5 , 589-595 (2000). Cebrat, M., et al., Bioorg. Research. Med. Six Dimensions. Chem., 11 , 3307-3313 (2003). The Vietnam War And. Sagar, V., et al., Bioorg. Med.

Chem ., 12 , 3383-3390 (2004). Balasubramanyam, K., et al., J. Of Health. Biol. Chem ., 279 , 51163-51171 (2004). Assessment. Kang, J., et al., Biochem. Pharmacol ., 69 , 1205-1213 (2005). Six Dimensions. Acharya, M.R., et al., Mol. Mcdonalds Buxton. Pharmacol ., (2005). Of Health. Drummond, D.C., et al., Annu. Fat Head: Effects Our Lives Example. Rev. Pharmacol. Of Health. Toxicol ., 45 , 495-528 (2005).

Chiba, T., et al., J. Hepatol ., 41 , 436-445 (2004). Orem´s On Nursing Examples. Marks, P.A. and six dimensions Jiang, X., Cell Cycle , 4 , 549-551 (2005). War History Essay. Taunton, J., et al., Science , 272 , 408-411 (1996). Six Dimensions Of Health. Cameron, E.E., et al., Nat. Genet., 21 , 103-107 (1999). Hirao, M., et al., J. Biol. Chem ., 278 , 52773-52782 (2003). Grozinger, C.M., et al., J. Biol. War History. Chem ., 276 , 38837-38843 (2001). Six Dimensions Of Health. Kaeberlein, M., et al., J. Biol.

Chem. A New Health System Essay. , 280 , 17038-17045 (2005). Six Dimensions Of Health. Howitz, K.T., et al., Nature , 425 , 191-196 (2003). Copyright 2017 Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.

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Perl-Programmierung: Regulare Ausdrucke. Als erstes stellt sich die Frage, was Regulare Ausdrucke (kurz: regex) sind und was man mit ihnen machen kann. Six Dimensions! Zum anderen warum sie gerade in definition research, einem Perl-Buch erklart werden. Regulare Ausdrucke sind eine Art Mini-Programme. Six Dimensions! Sie wurden entwickelt, um das Arbeiten mit Texten komfortabler und leichter zu gestalten.

Regulare Ausdrucke sind vergleichbar mit Mustern oder Schablonen, die auf einen oder mehrere unterschiedliche Strings passen konnen. Example Tissue! Diese Muster konnen entweder auf einen String passen oder nicht passen. Hierbei existieren zwei Kategorien von Regularen Ausdrucken. Six Dimensions Of Health! Einmal eine normale Mustersuche, zum anderen eine Suche und Ersetze-Funktion. Die normale Mustersuche wird zum einen darin verwendet, um ganze Eingaben oder Strings zu uberprufen oder einzelne Informationen aus einen String auszulesen. Mcdonalds! Die Suchen- und-Ersetzen-Funktion hat dabei eine ahnliche Funktion, wie Sie es von grafischen Texteditoren gewohnt sind, nur sind diese in six dimensions, Perl deutlich machtiger. Die englischen Begriffe fur die Muster- und Suche Ersetze-Funktion sind dabei: Pattern matching und Substitution. Of Marketing! Diese Begriffe sollte man kennen, da sie oft benutzt werden.

Diese werden hier ebenfalls im weiteren Verlauf Verwendung finden. Zum anderen stellt sich immer noch die Frage, was das Ganze mit Perl zu tun hat. Of Health! Regulare Ausdrucke werden deshalb behandelt, da sie ein zentraler Bestandteil von Perl sind. Concept Theory On Nursing Essay Examples! Sie werden in Ihrer Perl-Karriere wohl kein Perl-Programm finden, in six dimensions of health, dem nicht mindestens ein Regularer Ausdruck vorkommt. On Self-care: Theory On Nursing Examples! Regulare Ausdrucke sind dabei so fest in of health, Perl verankert und wurden im Laufe der Zeit so stark ausgebaut, dass dieses viele andere Programmiersprachen kopierten. Mcdonalds Buxton! Sie werden Regulare Ausdrucke in six dimensions of health, Sprachen wie: PHP, Java, C#, Python, JavaScript, Tcl, Ruby und noch vielen weiteren Programmiersprachen finden. Essay! Dabei wird diese Erweiterung meist als Perl-kompatibel beschrieben.

Jedoch sind Regulare Ausdrucke in six dimensions, keiner dieser Sprachen so fest implementiert und so leicht anzuwenden wie in Obsessive Compulsive Essay, Perl. Man kann schon fast sagen, dass Regulare Ausdrucke erst durch Perl ihre heutige Funktionalitat bekommen haben. Dabei rei?t der Artikel die Moglichkeiten von diesen Ausdrucken nur an. Der Aufbau der beiden genannten Typen sieht dabei folgenderma?en aus: Wie man am Pattern Matching sowie der Substitution erkennen kann, trennen die Slashes / die einzelnen Teile eines Regularen Ausdruckes. Allerdings haben Sie bei Perl die Wahl, jedes beliebige Sonderzeichen als Begrenzer zu wahlen. Six Dimensions Of Health! Die Vorteile davon werden Sie zu schatzen wissen, wenn Sie praktische Erfahrung mit Regularen Ausdrucken sammeln. Mcdonalds! Um es kurz vorweg zu sagen: Sie haben damit die Wahl ein Zeichen zu wahlen das nicht in six dimensions of health, Ihrer Regex vorkommt, und Sie konnen sich somit das Maskieren der Zeichen sparen. Perl wei? anhand des ersten Zeichen, das nach dem m oder dem s folgt, welcher Begrenzer gewahlt wurde. Mcdonalds! Es sind also auch folgende Schreibweisen erlaubt: Eine spezielle Regel gilt fur Zeichen, die ein offnendes sowie schlie?endes Zeichen besitzen.

Denn dort mussen die einzelnen Teile eingeklammert werden. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dies schaut folgenderma?en aus: Wie man sieht werden hier unterschiedliche Anfangs- sowie Endzeichen verwendet. Of Muscle! Eine weitere Eigenschaft ist, dass nur das wirkliche Endzeichen die Regex respektive den String einklammert. Six Dimensions! Im folgenden praktischen Beispiel ist also auch folgendes moglich: Wenn Sie etwas Erfahrung mit Regularen Ausdrucken haben, werden Sie sehen, dass diese Regex keinen Sinn ergibt.

Allerdings dient das lediglich zur Veranschaulichung, dass hier wirklich (H)allo als Regex erkannt wird, und nicht (H wie man annehmen konnte. Wenn Sie noch nicht verstehen, was hier passiert, dann ist dies nicht weiter schlimm, wir werden spater darauf zuruckkommen. Wie die Form eines Regularen Ausdrucks ausschaut, wissen Sie. Mcdonalds! Jedoch wissen Sie noch nicht, wie man diesen auf einen String anwendet. Hierfur existiert der sogenannte Bindungsoperator. Of Health! Um einen String mit einer Regex zu verbinden, egal ob nun Pattern Matching oder Substitution, schreiben Sie einfach folgendes: Dieser Bindungsoperator pruft im ersten Fall, ob in Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay, $text das angegebene Muster auf der rechten Seite vorkommt. Of Health! Zur Substitution kommen wir noch spater; allerdings sei hierzu gesagt, dass jedes Vorkommen der angegebenen Regex in The Vietnam War and War History Essay, $text durch String ersetzt wird. Weiterhin besitzt dieser Ausdruck einen Ruckgabewert.

Wenn das Muster, das in six dimensions of health, Regex angegeben wird, wirklich in $text passt, dann wird true zuruckgegeben. Obsessive Disorder Assessment Essay! Das gleiche gilt fur die Substitution. Six Dimensions! Wenn die Regex auf $text gepasst hat, wurde eine Ersetzung durchgefuhrt und es wird der Wert true zuruckgegeben. Sollte die Regex in of marketing research, beiden Fallen nicht auf den String in six dimensions of health, $text gepasst haben, dann wird false als Wert zuruckgeliefert. Definition Research! Bei der Substitution hat dies noch die Auswirkung, dass eine Ersetzung nicht stattgefunden hat. In diesem Kapitel, erfahren Sie grundlegende Einzelheiten wie Regulare Ausdrucke funktionieren. Sie werden einzelne Stolpersteine kennenlernen, und lernen sie zu vermeiden. Six Dimensions Of Health! Nach diesem Kapitel sollten Sie in example, der Lage sein Regulare Ausdrucke auf beliebige Strings anzuwenden, und nur das zu finden, zu ersetzen oder die Informationen zu extrahieren die Sie wollen. Mit dem jetzigen Wissen wollen wir ein Pattern Matching ausfuhren. Six Dimensions! Wir wollen nach einem bestimmten Wort in Assessment Essay, einem String suchen, und sofern gefunden, wollen wir dies dem Benutzer mitteilen. Ein konkretes Beispiel:

Die Ausgabe des Perl-Scripts ware Kamel gefunden. Six Dimensions! Gehen wir die einzelnen Zeilen zusammen durch. Buxton! In Zeile 1 wird ein Skalar mit dem Text Wir mogen Kamele, auch wenn sie ubel riechen definiert. Six Dimensions! Zeile 2 ist nun neu fur uns. Of Marketing! Hier wird der Ruckgabewert von unserem Ausdruck $string = m/Kamel/ in six dimensions, einer bedingten Anweisung (if) ausgewertet. Wie wir wissen, wird true zuruckgegeben, wenn unser Suchmuster in dalai lama wikipedia, $string vorkommt. Six Dimensions! Wenn unser Suchmuster nicht vorkommt, wird false als Wert zuruckgegeben. Assessment! Dies hat direkte Auswirkung auf unsere if-Kontrollstruktur.

Wenn unser Muster gefunden wird, dann wird true zuruckgegeben und dadurch Zeile 3 ausgefuhrt. Of Health! Wenn das Muster nicht in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment Essay, $string vorkommt, wird false zuruckgegeben und Zeile 5 ausgefuhrt. Aber warum finden wir denn uberhaupt unser Kamel? Im String steht doch Kamele. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dies ist zwar richtig, aber Perl interessiert sich nicht fur Worter. Mcdonalds Buxton! Perl liest unser Muster folgenderma?en: Ein K, gefolgt von a, gefolgt von m, gefolgt von e, gefolgt von l. Of Health! Unser komplettes Muster wird also an War and Vietnam's War History folgender unterstrichener Stelle gefunden. An diesem Punkt wird unsere Suche auch sofort abgebrochen. Six Dimensions! Was danach kommt ist unwichtig. Obsessive! Unsere Regex hat auf das Muster gepasst und es wird als Ruckgabewert true zuruckgegeben. Hier haben wir 2 Sachen gelernt: Die Mustersuche erkennt lediglich ein Zeichen nach dem anderen, ohne einen hoheren Zusammenhang, also z.B. Six Dimensions! ein Wort daraus bilden zu konnen.

Die Mustersuche wird sofort beendet sobald unsere Regex vollstandig passt. Zwei wichtige Punkte, auf die Sie spater immer wieder sto?en werden. Mcdonalds Buxton! Wissen Sie, was ausgegeben werden wurde, wenn Sie den Ausdruck in of health, der oberen if-Kontrollstruktur folgenderma?en anpassen wurden? Richtig! Es wurde Schade, kein Kamel weit und breit. ausgegeben werden! Warum? Perl interpretiert die Mustersuche folgenderma?en: Ein kleines k, gefolgt von einem kleinen a, gefolgt von einem kleinen m . Also nochmals zur Verdeutlichung. Es werden wirklich nur Folgen von Zeichen erkannt, ohne diese zu Interpretieren. Vietnam's War History! Ein gro?es K ist ein anderes Zeichen als ein kleines k und wird folglich nicht gefunden. Six Dimensions! Da im ganzen $string kein k gefolgt von a . The Vietnam War And Vietnam's! vorkommt wird letztendlich false als Wert zuruckgegeben, und unser else-Block wird ausgefuhrt. Allerdings brauchen Sie keine Angst haben, dass Sie jetzt jede Schreibweise von Kamel ( kAmEl, KAMel, . Of Health! ) uberprufen mussen.

Es gibt bestimmte Optionen die Sie aktivieren konnen, wodurch eine Gro?- und Kleinschreibung nicht unterschieden wird. Bevor wir uns nun mit den Optionen befassen, wollen wir eine Substitution durchfuhren. Definition! Hierfur passen wir das vorherige Beispiel etwas an: In Zeile 1 wird ein String initialisiert, danach fuhren wir eine Substitution auf $string aus. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dort wollen wir Kamel durch Lama ersetzen. Unser Ergebnis wird danach zuruckgegeben. Wissen Sie bereits was zuruckgegeben wird? Denken Sie erst daruber nach, bevor Sie sich die Losung anschauen: Uberrascht?

Gehen wir die Substitution einzeln durch. Dalai Lama Wikipedia! Unsere Substitution sagt, dass wir das Vorkommen von einem gro?en K gefolgt von einem kleinen a . Six Dimensions Of Health! durch Lama ersetzen wollen. Of Marketing! Wir mussen also jedes Vorkommen von Kamel erst einmal finden, und es danach durch Lama ersetzen. Of Health! Damit wir unser Kamel uberhaupt finden, beginnt unsere Substitution an buxton der ersten Stelle unseres Strings. Six Dimensions! Hier wird uberpruft ob das K auf das W von Wir passt. Definition! Das passt naturlich nicht, also springen wir ein Zeichen weiter. Of Health! Es wird nun uberpruft ob das i auf das K passt. Dies passt naturlich nicht, und unsere Substitution geht so lange den String weiter, bis es auf das erste K von Kamel passt.

Jetzt ist gefordert, dass ein a folgt. Definition Of Marketing! Dies kommt wirklich vor, und die Substitution springt ein Zeichen weiter, solange bis unser ganzes Kamel erkannt wurde. Six Dimensions! Nun ist unsere Regex erfolgreich erkannt worden, und unser Kamel wird durch Lama ersetzt. Definition Of Marketing! Wichtig ist, dass unser folgendes e von Kamele nicht erkannt wurde, da wir nicht wissen wie wir Worter erkennen konnen (jedenfalls noch nicht). Six Dimensions! Die Ersetzung wird also durchgefuhrt, und unsere Substitution war erfolgreich. Compulsive Assessment Essay! Es wird true als Ruckgabewert zuruckgeliefert, und die Substitution beendet. Six Dimensions Of Health! Allerdings wird der Ruckgabewert true verworfen.

Unsere Substitution dringt erst gar nicht bis zum zweiten Kamele vor, und ersetzt dieses auch nicht, weil unsere Substitution bereits vorher erfolgreich war. Hier lernen wir also wieder einige Neuigkeiten: Ein String wird von links nach rechts durchgearbeitet. Mcdonalds Buxton! Es wird immer der fruhestmoglichste Treffer links gefunden. Um jetzt jedes Vorkommen vom Kamel durch Lama zu ersetzen, konnten wir folgendes schreiben: Wenn also unser Kamel gefunden und erfolgreich ersetzt wurde, wird als Ruckgabewert true geliefert. Six Dimensions! Diese Ruckgabe bringt while dazu, die leere Schleife noch einmal anzusto?en. Anschlie?end wird erneut unsere Bedingung durchgefuhrt.

Zu beachten ist, dass unsere Substitution wieder ganz von vorne beginnt, also an mcdonalds buxton der ersten Stelle im String anfangt, und nicht an six dimensions of health der Stelle, an Concept Analysis Orem´s Theory on Nursing examples der wir zuletzt etwas verandert haben. Six Dimensions Of Health! Da das erste Kamel bereits beim ersten Durchlauf durch Lama ersetzt wurde, findet und ersetzt die Substitution trotzdem das zweite Vorkommen von Kamel. Of Muscle! Manchmal ist dieses Verhalten gewunscht, aber in of health, den seltesten Fallen ist dies der Fall, und es kann hierbei zu Problemen kommen. Definition Of Marketing Research! Stellen Sie sich folgendes while Konstrukt vor: Hiermit hatten wir eine Endlossschleife gebaut. Six Dimensions Of Health! Das erste Vorkommen eines e wird durch ein ee ersetzt. Analysis On Self-care: On Nursing Essay! Der Ruckgabewert ist true und unsere Substitution beginnt wieder von vorne.

Jetzt sind zwei e an six dimensions of health der Stelle vorhanden, und dort ersetzen wir wieder das erste e durch ee. Concept Essay! Es existieren also schon 3 e an six dimensions of health dieser Stelle. Of Muscle Tissue! Dieses wird jetzt unendlich oft durchgefuhrt. Of Health! Jedenfalls solange bis Perl absturzt, weil Sie nicht genugend RAM haben um so einen gro?en String zu speichern. Sie sollten also aufpassen bei solch einer Verwendung. Example! Es gibt zwar eine Option, die unserem gewunschten Verhalten entspricht und bei der letzten Substitution weitermacht. Six Dimensions Of Health! Aber manchmal benotigen wir das obige Verhalten. Optionen dienen dazu das Verhalten unserer Regex zu verandern. Mit ihnen sind Sachen moglich, die so ohne weiteres nicht moglich waren.

Jede Option kann dabei unsere Regex grundlegend verandern. Buxton! Die Optionen werden hierbei hinter den Regularen Ausdruck angehangt. Six Dimensions Of Health! Es ist auch moglich mehrere Optionen zu benutzen, die Reihenfolge der Optionen spielt hierbei keine Rolle. Den grundlegenden Aufbau sehen Sie in buxton, der Einleitung, hier aber nochmals ein paar praktische Beispiele: Einige wichtige Optionen sollen hierbei bereits erlautert werden, andere wenn sie wichtig werden: Mit der Option i ignore-case konnen wir Perl dazu veranlassen, dass zwischen Gro?- und Kleinschreibung nicht mehr unterschieden wird. Six Dimensions! Folgendes Muster: Wurde also auch auf KAMEL, KAmel, KaMeL, . Of Marketing Research! passen. Im Kapitel Substitution wollten wir, dass jedes Vorkommen von Kamel durch Lama ersetzt wird, bei der folgenden Losung mit der while-Schleife funktionierte das zwar, jedoch konnte dieses unter Umstanden zu neuen Problemen fuhren. Six Dimensions! Das g steht hier fur global und es mochte damit ausdrucken, dass wir den ganzen String durcharbeiten.

Genau gesagt bewirkt /g, dass die Substitution nach einer Ersetzung nicht beendet wird, sondern an The Vietnam War and Vietnam's War History Essay der letzten Position weiter macht, und nach weiteren Treffern sucht. Six Dimensions! Der Ruckgabewert ist hierbei die Anzahl von Substitutionen, die innerhalb des Strings durchgefuhrt wurden. War History! Wenn also mindestens eine Substitution durchgefuhrt wurde, ist der Ruckgabewert automatisch 0 und somit ein wahrer Wert. Hierbei ist zu beachten, dass die Option nur Auswirkung auf eine Substitution hat. Six Dimensions! Wir konnen z.B. War And Vietnam's War History! nicht mit: Die Anzahl der e Buchstaben innerhalb eines Strings zahlen. Dadurch, dass unsere Substitution jedoch nicht immer wieder von vorne anfangt, konnen wir das letzte Problem im Kapitel Substitution losen. Dies wurde nun nicht mehr in six dimensions, eine Endlosschleife enden, sondern folgenden String zuruckgeben: Normalerweise werden innerhalb einer Regex Whitespace-Zeichen als zu dem Muster gehorend angesehen. Diese Regex wurde auf ein a gefolgt von einem Leerzeichen gefolgt von einem b passen. Research! Mit dieser Option verliert das Leerzeichen seine Bedeutung, und wir wurden ein a gefolgt von einem b suchen.

Unter Whitespace-Zeichen versteht man alle Zeichen, die nicht direkt etwas auf dem Bildschirm Zeichnen. Six Dimensions! Dies sind zum Beispiel Leerzeichen, Tabulatoren, Newlines und Formfeeds. Wahrscheinlich werden Sie den Sinn dahinter noch nicht nachvollziehen konnen. Definition! Fur die sehr kleinen Regexe, die wir bisher geschrieben haben, ist dieses auch unbrauchbar. Six Dimensions Of Health! Allerdings werden wir spater auf sehr viel komplexere Regexe sto?en. Concept Analysis Orem´s Essay! Damit diese besser lesbar sind, wurde diese Option implementiert. Six Dimensions! Damit kann man eine Regex uber mehrere Zeilen verteilen und ihnen sogar Kommentare geben. i, case-insensitive : Gro?- und Kleinschreibung wird ignoriert g, global : Es werden alle Stellen gesucht, die passen. Analysis On Self-care: Orem´s Theory Examples! Die Funktion ist eher fur das Ersetzen mit regularen Ausdrucken interessant. Six Dimensions! m, multi-line : Verandert die Bedeutung des $-Zeichen (siehe Sonderzeichen), damit es an example of muscle tissue der Position vor einem n passt. Of Health! s, single-line : Verandert die Bedeutung des .-Zeichen (siehe Sonderzeichen), damit es auch auf einem n passt. x, extended : Alle Whitespace-Zeichen innerhalb des Regularen Ausdrucks verlieren ihre Bedeutung.

Dadurch kann man Regulare Ausdrucke optisch besser aufbereiten und uber mehrere Zeilen schreiben. War History Essay! o, compile once : Ausdruck wird nur einmal kompiliert und kann nicht mehr verandert werden. Six Dimensions Of Health! e, evaluate : Das Ersetzmuster wird als Perl-Code interpretiert und ausgefuhrt. Quantoren sind eine Moglichkeit auszudrucken, dass etwas bestimmt oft nacheinander folgt. Of Marketing Research! Hierbei kann man die Anzahl selber bestimmen, oder man benutzt bereits vordefinierte Quantoren. Six Dimensions! Diese vordefinierten Quantoren wurden eingebaut, weil diese besonders oft vorgekommen sind. Dalai Wikipedia! Sie werden durch Sonderzeichen definiert. Six Dimensions! Quantoren beziehen sich immer auf die Einheit die vor ihnen steht. Example! Dies kann dabei ein einfacher Buchstabe, ein Zahl oder aber auch eine Gruppierung von Zeichen sein. Stellen Sie sich vor, Sie mochten eine Folge von 15 a hintereinander erkennen.

Sie konnten in six dimensions of health, Ihrer Regex das a nun 15mal schreiben, allerdings konnen Sie sich dabei leicht verzahlen. Obsessive Compulsive Assessment Essay! Genauso wird es schwieriger Ihren Code zu Lesen. Of Health! Daher ware die Benutzung eines Quantors ideal. Wie man erkennen kann, wird ein Quantor durch geschweifte Klammern definiert. Definition Of Marketing! Da sich der Quantor auf die vorherige Einheit bezieht, wird hier gesagt, dass das a 15 mal vorkommen muss.

Der Quantor bezieht sich hier nicht auf das b, wie man annehmen konnte. Six Dimensions! Was ware aber, wenn wir nun eine Mindestgrenze und eine Maximalgrenze angeben wollen? Dies ware auch kein Problem. Hiermit sagen wir, dass das a mindestens 10 mal vorkommen muss und maximal 15 mal vorkommen darf. Of Marketing! Danach muss ein b folgen. Six Dimensions Of Health! Nun wollen wir aber das ein a nur eine mindestgrenze erfullen muss, es danach aber unendlich oft folgen darf. Definition Of Marketing Research! Um dies auszudrucken, lassen wir einfach die Maximalgrenze weg. Wichtig hierbei ist, dass das Komma stehen bleiben muss. Wurden wir das Komma weg lassen, hatten wir eine genaue Angabe wie oft das a vorkommen muss.

In diesem Beispiel muss das a nun mindestens 10 mal hintereinander vorkommen, darf aber auch unendlich oft vorkommen. Six Dimensions Of Health! Das Gleiche konnen wir auch fur die Maximalangabe machen. Hiermit wurde wir ein a maximal 10 mal finden, allerdings darf es auch kein einziges mal vorkommen. Dieser Quantor ist identisch mit . Definition Of Marketing Research! Er druckt aus, dass das vorherige optional ist, d.h. Of Health! 1-mal oder keinmal vorkommen darf.

Dies wurde z.B. auf die Dateiendung .htm sowie auch .html passen. Buxton! Der Punkt muss hier durch ein Backslash maskiert werden, da der Punkt eine besondere Bedeutung hat. Six Dimensions! Genauso wie das Fragezeichen. Wollen Sie nicht die besondere Bedeutung des Fragezeichen haben, weil Sie nach einem Fragezeichen suchen wollen, mussen Sie dieses auch maskieren. Of Marketing Research! Durch ? verliert das Fragezeichen seine Bedeutung als Quantor. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dies gilt ebenfalls fur alle anderen Sonderzeichen. Dieser Quantor ist identisch mit . War And Essay! Er druckt aus, dass das vorherige beliebig haufig vorkommen darf, also auch keinmal. Of Health! Dieser Quantor wird erst interessant mit sogenannten Zeichenklassen.

Hier greife ich etwas vorweg. Compulsive Assessment Essay! Das d steht dabei fur eine beliebige Ziffer von 0-9. Six Dimensions Of Health! Wenn wir den Stern-Quantor auf das d anwenden, dann finden wir eine Folge von Ziffern. Definition Research! Allerdings muss keine Ziffer an six dimensions of health dieser Stelle stehen, denn keinmal ist ja ebenfalls erlaubt. Dalai! Bei der Verwendung des Sterns mussen Sie aufpassen. Of Health! Nicht immer ist es das, was Sie wollen. Er wurde auch auf zweiundvierzig passen, da es nunmal auch erlaubt ist, wenn keine Ziffer vorkommt. Der Quantor ist identisch mit . Obsessive Disorder! Er druckt aus, dass das vorherige mindestens einmal vorkommen muss, aber unendlich oft folgen darf. Six Dimensions! Wie auch der Stern-Quantor ist dieser erst mit einer Zeichenklassen interessant. Meistens ist es das, was Sie wollen.

Es erkennt eine beliebige Anzahl von Ziffern. On Self-care: On Nursing Essay! Dabei muss jedoch mindestens eine Ziffer vorkommen. Vielleicht haben Sie sich bei dem ?-Quantor gefragt, was nun als erstes erkannt wird. Six Dimensions! Das htm oder das html. War History! Alle Quantoren die hier vorgestellt wurden sind gierig.

Das bedeutet, dass, wenn sie die Wahl haben ein Zeichen zu erkennen oder nicht zu erkennen, sie es immer zuerst versuchen werden, es zu erkennen. Bei dem Beispiel mit dem ?-Quantor wurde zuerst das .htm erkannt werden. Of Health! Das l ist Optional, da es aber gierig ist, schaut es nach, ob das l wirklich danach kommt, und wird es ebenfalls aufnehmen wenn es folgt. Dalai Wikipedia! Wenn es nicht folgen sollte, ist unsere Regex ebenfalls erfullt, da es auch erlaubt war, wenn das l nicht auf .htm folgt. Manchmal mochten Sie, dass an six dimensions of health einer bestimmten Stelle eine Auswahl unterschiedlicher Zeichen stehen kann. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder! Fur dieses Problem gibt es die sogenannten Zeichenklassen. Eine Zeichenklasse wird mit eckigen Klammern umgeben. Six Dimensions Of Health! Hierbei ist zu beachten, dass die komplette Zeichenklasse fur ein einziges Zeichen steht.

Innerhalb der Zeichenklasse wird definiert, auf welches Zeichen die Zeichenklasse passen darf. Dieses Matching wurde auf eine zweistellige Zahl passen. Vietnam's War History! Dabei muss die erste Ziffer 2, 3 oder 4 sein, und die zweite Ziffer 1, 2, 3, 4 oder 5. Six Dimensions! 50 oder 20 wurden z.B. Mcdonalds! nicht gefunden werden. Zeichenklassen-Metazeichen Bearbeiten. Innerhalb von Zeichenklassen ist der Bindestrich als sogenanntes Zeichenklassen-Metazeichen erlaubt. Hiermit konnen wir ganze Bereiche von Zeichen angeben. Six Dimensions! Wollen wir z.B. Mcdonalds! alle Zahlen erkennen, konnen wir das auf zwei Arten tun. Diese beiden Zeichenklassen erkennen genau das gleiche.

Bei Buchstaben wird der Vorteil offensichtlicher: Mochten wir ein Bindestrich innerhalb einer Zeichenklasse erkennen, dann mussen wir diesen als erstes Zeichen schreiben. Dies wurde auf alle Buchstaben inklusive des Bindestriches passen. Negative Zeichenklasse Bearbeiten. Weiterhin gibt es eine negative Zeichenklasse. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dort konnen wir definieren, auf welche Zeichen unsere Zeichenklasse nicht passen darf. Dalai! Mochten wir eine negative Zeichenklasse verwenden, dann muss das erste Zeichen innerhalb der Zeichenklasse ein Zirkumflex (^) sein.

Wenn das Zirkumflex nicht an six dimensions of health erster Stelle steht, wird es als normales Zeichen erkannt. Wenn also jedes beliebige Zeichen au?er einer Zahl erkannt werden soll, konnen wir folgendes schreiben: Dieser Abschnitt ist sehr verwandt mit der Zeichenklasse. Compulsive Essay! Wahrend wir bei der Zeichenklasse unsere Zeichen wahlen konnten, konnen wir dies bei den Zeichenklassen nicht mehr. Six Dimensions Of Health! Diese Zeichenklassen dienen lediglich als Abkurzung fur eine bestimmte Zeichenklasse: d = digit Erkennt Ziffern. Mcdonalds Buxton! Ist das gleiche wie [0123456789] D = Erkennt alles andere au?er Ziffern. Six Dimensions Of Health! Ist das gleiche wie [^0123456789] s = Erkennt jegliche Art von Whitespace-Zeichen: Leerzeichen, Tabulatoren, Newlines, Formfeed . S = Erkennt alles au?er Whitespace-Zeichen. Obsessive Disorder Assessment Essay! w = word Erkennt Ziffern, Buchstaben und Unterstrich. Of Health! Ist das gleiche wie [a-zA-Z0-9_] W = Erkennt alles au?er einem Wortzeichen. On Self-care: Orem´s Theory On Nursing Examples! . Of Health! = Punkt Steht fur jedes Zeichen au?er Newline.

Ist das gleiche wie [^n] Unter Alternation verstehen wir dass entweder das eine, oder das andere passen kann. Example Of Muscle! Es ist also eine Oder-Verknupfung. Six Dimensions Of Health! Eine Alternation schreiben wir als | (Pipe) Zeichen. Concept Analysis On Self-care: On Nursing! Hierbei wird dann entweder das genommen was links von diesem Zeichen steht, oder was rechts von diesem Zeichen steht. Bei der Alternation innerhalb des Pattern Matching gibt es wenig zu beachten. Stellen Sie sich vor, Sie schreiben ein Programm und mochten, dass sich das Programm nach diversen Eingaben des Benutzers beendet. Of Health! Sie konnten folgendes Schreiben. Dieses Programm wartet auf eine Eingabe des Benutzers.

Wurden wir q, quit oder exit eingeben, dann wurde sich unser Programm beenden. Definition! Bei allem anderen wurden wir die Meldung Hallo, Welt! auf dem Bildschirm sehen. Innerhalb einer Substitution gibt es einige Punkte die wir beachten mussen. Of Health! Stellen Sie sich vor, Sie mochten jedes vorkommen von q oder quit durch exit ersetzen. The Vietnam! Vielleicht wurden Sie so etwas schreiben: Dies funktioniert aber nicht richtig. Six Dimensions Of Health! Sollte wirklich quit im String vorkommen auf dem Sie diese Regex anwenden, dann wurde folgendes dabei raus kommen: Um die genaue Vorgehensweise zu verstehen, mussen Sie wissen wie Perl eine Alternation behandelt. Dalai Lama Wikipedia! Es wird wieder Zeichen fur Zeichen uberpruft.

Dabei wird aber auch die Reihenfolge der Alternation beachtet. Es wird zuerst der Ausdruck ganz links uberpruft und erst wenn dieser nicht passt, wird der nachste Ausdruck uberpruft. Six Dimensions! Sollte ein Ausdruck passen, wird sofort die Substitution ausgefuhrt. Concept On Self-care: Orem´s Theory! Bei quit passt das q sofort und es wurde hier eine Substitution mit exit statt finden. Six Dimensions Of Health! Dadurch wurde ein quit nie im Text ersetzt werden, da wir schon vorher das q durch exit ersetzt haben.

Wir mussen also die Reihenfolge vertauschen: Bei der Alternation ist die Reihenfolge wichtig. Dieser Punkt gilt auch fur das Pattern Matching, allerdings hangt es von der Verwendung ab, ob wir die Reihenfolge anpassen mussen. Concept Analysis Examples! Im obrigen Beispiel ist es egal wodurch unser Programm beendet wird. Of Health! Wurden wir aber Informationen auslesen, kann es sehr wohl von Bedeutung werden, welche Reihenfolge wir in Compulsive Essay, der Alternation gewahlt haben. Fur die Suchmuster stehen diverse Sonderzeichen zur Verfugung.

Diese konnen dann beispielsweise fur beliebige Zeichen oder fur das Zeilenende stehen. . Six Dimensions! steht fur ein beliebiges Zeichen au?er dem n. ? steht fur das ein- oder nullmalige Vorkommen des vorangegangenen Zeichens oder Gruppierung. The Vietnam Vietnam's! Folgt das Fragezeichen auf einen Quantor dann wird dieser zu einem nicht gierigen Quantor. Six Dimensions Of Health! + steht fur das ein- oder mehrmalige Vorkommen des vorangegangenen Zeichen oder Gruppierung. Compulsive Disorder Essay! * steht fur das null- oder mehrmalige Vorkommen des vorangegangenen Zeichen oder Gruppierung. Six Dimensions Of Health! ^ steht fur den Beginn einer Zeile. Compulsive Disorder Essay! $ steht fur das Ende eines Strings. Of Health! Wenn die /m Option benutzt wird, wird die Bedeutung so verandert das es fur ein n Zeichen steht. Example Of Muscle Tissue! A steht fur den Beginn eines Strings. Of Health! Z steht immer fur das Ende eines Strings, unabhangig ob die Option /m verwendet wurde. Of Marketing! - das nachste Zeichen wird ohne Funktion interpretiert. Six Dimensions Of Health! Um einen Punkt zu suchen muss . Of Muscle Tissue! benutzt werden, sonst wird ein beliebiges Zeichen gefunden. [] wird Zeichenklasse genannt und steht fur ein angegebenes Zeichen. [dhb]ot wurde dot, hot oder bot finden. Of Health! () 1. Buxton! Funktion: Gruppiert Ausdrucke. Six Dimensions! 2.Funktion: Speichert den tatsachlichen Wert, der an research dieser Stelle gefunden wurde, in of health, einer Variable. | steht fur das logische ODER. Lama Wikipedia! ist|war gibt sowohl true, wenn ist im Ausdruck vorkommt, als auch wenn war im Ausdruck enthalten ist. Geht es nur darum, einzelne Zeichen durch andere zu ersetzen, sind Regulare Ausdrucke haufig 'uberqualifiziert', da es mit tr/// eine deutlich einfachere und performantere Alternative gibt. SUCHEN und ERSETZEN sind dabei Auflistungen der zu ersetzenden Zeichen und ihren entsprechenden Ersetzungen. Six Dimensions! tr/abc/xyz/ ersetzt alle a mit x, alle b mit y und alle c mit z. Zusatzlich zu einzelnen Zeichen konnen Bereiche angegeben werden. Definition Research! Ist die Liste ERSETZEN kurzer als die Liste SUCHEN, werden die ubrigen Zeichen von SUCHEN mit dem letzten Zeichen von ERSETZEN ersetzt.

Die beiden Ausdrucke tr/a-f/xyz/ und tr/abcdef/xyzzzz/ bewirken also das Gleiche. Einige nutzliche Beispiele: Als Ruckgabewert der Operation wird die Anzahl der gefunden Zeichen verwendet. Damit gibt es auch die Moglichkeit, mit tr/// Zeichen in of health, einem String zu zahlen. Concept On Nursing Examples! Dazu verwendet man die gleichen Sequenzen fur SUCHEN und ERSETZEN, oder die Liste der ersetzenden Zeichen wird einfach leergelassen:

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10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. #8220;A resume should be treated as one of your major design jobs. The typeface you use, the of health layout, etc all show exactly what level of design you are at. Every detail counts, and the sum of these details gives an of marketing research impression of you as a designer.#8221; Self-promotion is of health essential to a graphic designer#8217;s success. As a creative, expertly branding and marketing yourself is the path to reaching career goals, whether that is to be an Art Director for an in-house firm or establishing a lucrative freelance design business. Crafting an eye-catching and memorable resume is dalai major component of of health, your self-promotion strategy. As a designer, your resume design needs to showcase your talent and epitomize your personal brand. Of Marketing! It is the perfect opportunity to define you as a designer and to six dimensions of health, create a unique personal brand. When constructing a resume, you#8217;ll need to Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s on Nursing examples, establish a personal brand identity that highlights your strengths and emphasizes the breadth of your abilities.

At the 2014 HOW Live Design Conference, brand expert Robin Landa discussed the importance of building a personal brand. Watch this clip from of health her presentation, #8220;How to War and War History Essay, Build Your Own Brand A 10-Step Guide,#8221; for some professional insight on how to six dimensions of health, start thinking about the brand identity development process. To view the rest of Robin#8217;s presentation, download it here. Obsessive Assessment Essay! 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. Find resume design inspiration from the graphic designer resumes below. These designs showcase each designer#8217;s creativity and professional experience, leveraging unique presentation techniques for a memorable final product. Infographic Resume Design in a Tube.

This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and work to life. This project was honored as the Best of Show winner in the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards. Learn more about the project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition. Learn more about infographic design in How to six dimensions of health, Make an Infographic , an War and Vietnam's Essay online course with John T. Meyer of visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the discipline #8216;Creativity and Innovation#8217; at six dimensions, Graduate Diploma in Design Management. The goal was to on Self-care: Essay, create an unconventional resume in an innovative platform. All the informations about the of health student were placed in of marketing research a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for implementing effective package design solutions by Grip guides you through the six dimensions entire packaging process from dalai lama wikipedia strategy and concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the of health competition, assessing the shelf landscape and mcdonalds, more. Personal Graphic Designer Resume and of health, Self-Promotion. Tissue! #8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more. #8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. #8220;A combined resume and open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about six dimensions of health a #8216;newly educated and creative designer, who have settled in dalai the city.#8217; This is a self promotion project that were made to display a variety of skills as a graphic designer and get attention from local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more. Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. #8220;I took a fair amount of time to design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there!

I took a lot of care to make it respond to my style and personality. It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an six dimensions eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to Better Business Writing . This handy guide breaks the writing process down into simple, easy-to-understand stages and War and, offers practical writing and presentation models that designers can put to use immediately. Real-life examples cover an six dimensions array of essential topics: writing winning resumes and Concept Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s on Nursing examples, cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Discover how to start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to six dimensions of health, Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to take the first step in creating a business, how to avoid the example of muscle barriers that block success and six dimensions of health, how to make your passion profitable.

Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the Analysis Essay success you#8217;ve been trying to create for six dimensions yourself. 9 thoughts on “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great. I like the one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm. Mcdonalds! However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of six dimensions, these crafty designs would get past an dalai lama ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe.

But for the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the 7th on the list. I would have to agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us. With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring. Have a look at these Fancy CV templates. There are some brilliant ideas out there!

We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. Six Dimensions Of Health! https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. Check out this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to definition of marketing research, use also.. Six Dimensions Of Health! Have a look here: https://creativemarket.com/3Angle/605445-The-Complete-Resume-Collection. The Vietnam War And Essay! You would want to have a look at http://www.cvdesigner.in to get some awesome resumes made. They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of six dimensions, things in the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at the level of personal information that is shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;.

You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Assessment a photo (and all the other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the six dimensions of health HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to definition research, post a comment. Handlettering Experiments Textures.

Want to get your hands dirty exploring some analogue letter-making techniques? This course is for you. 5 video presentations for one great price a MyDesignShop exclusive! HOW Fall 2017 The Promotion Marketing Design Issue is here! Copyright F+W All rights reserved | Privacy.

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Essay on six dimensions of health Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an Analysis Orem´s on Nursing examples almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. Of Health? All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. Concept Analysis Theory Essay Examples? It is a very ancient institution. There is six dimensions of health no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands.

It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. Of Marketing Research? It has influenced other institutions. Of Health? It has been exerting tremendous influence upon on Self-care: Orem´s Theory examples, political and economic aspects of life. Six Dimensions? It is lama wikipedia said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. Six Dimensions? It is the human response to dalai lama wikipedia those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies.

Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe. The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in of health, and practice of signs of Divine Communication. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions.

Central to all religions is the of muscle tissue, concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and six dimensions, transcendental foundation. By faith man is The Vietnam War History Essay distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it. According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to of health man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.

As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and buxton, wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer. Arnold W. Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and six dimensions of health, objects, governed by Concept Theory on Nursing Essay, faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and of health, beyond the controllable. According to Maclver and Page, Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and Concept on Self-care: Theory examples, some higher power. As Gillin and Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs. Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is six dimensions difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and War and Vietnam's, that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about mans life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism.

In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of six dimensions of health, life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and War and, (b) psychological. Of Health? The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena.

Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by example of muscle tissue, any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of six dimensions, religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion.

There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. Compulsive Assessment Essay? An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of six dimensions, animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent.

Religious ritual is the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of War History, special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of six dimensions, reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Essay examples, powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates mans sense of guilty. Six Dimensions Of Health? It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the mcdonalds buxton, fifth basic element of religion. Six Dimensions Of Health? Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha.

The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for mans sins. In short, religion is the buxton, institutionalised set of six dimensions, beliefs men hold about Analysis Theory on Nursing Essay, supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as the age of reason, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and six dimensions, moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and definition of marketing research, political institutions. Hence, it is six dimensions obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society.

These functions of mcdonalds buxton, religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for six dimensions, Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Obsessive Compulsive Essay? Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of six dimensions of health, these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by Obsessive Compulsive, giving explanations to of health certain aspects of the example of muscle, human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Of Health? Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and Essay, the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and of health, hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the Obsessive Assessment Essay, same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Six Dimensions Of Health? Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon example, which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to six dimensions of health men; people should be honest and lama, virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. Six Dimensions Of Health? All the Concept Analysis Theory Essay, religions have preached love and six dimensions, non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance.

4. Religions Acts as an dalai wikipedia Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Six Dimensions? Religion not only defines moral expectations for The Vietnam Essay, members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God.

Hence, any violation of the six dimensions, acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Mcdonalds? Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and six dimensions, destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of of muscle tissue, individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and of health, culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from The Vietnam War and Vietnam's Essay which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and six dimensions of health, achievements. Definition Research? The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands ones self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and of health, feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the Obsessive, noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions.

Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the six dimensions of health, emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the Orem´s Theory Essay, kings of six dimensions, France were supposed to research rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of six dimensions of health, civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and The Vietnam Vietnam's War History Essay, political life.

Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of six dimensions of health, religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the Compulsive Assessment, dysfunctions of religion. Six Dimensions? The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Assessment Essay, Hinders Social Changes: According to six dimensions Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to example of muscle be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes.

Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the six dimensions, Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions. For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.

Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to of marketing take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and six dimensions of health, suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of Analysis on Self-care: Essay, religion that caused Marx to of health call religion as the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay, a heartless world, and of health, the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people. By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and Concept Analysis on Self-care: Theory on Nursing Essay examples, ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the six dimensions, welfare of human beings.

Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. Definition Of Marketing Research? It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Six Dimensions? It leads to definition of marketing waste of of health, human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. Analysis On Self-care: Orem´s Examples? In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. Of Health? They have faith without reasoning which is blind. Theory? On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and six dimensions of health, fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo.

Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in definition research, life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. Six Dimensions? As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Of Marketing? Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. Six Dimensions Of Health? For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of mcdonalds, society proceeded from the material and of health, especially the economic sphere.

For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing examples limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, is the self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. Six Dimensions Of Health? But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the research, human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for of health, their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. Concept On Self-care: Theory Essay Examples? The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into of health the criticism of politics. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. Concept Analysis Orem´s Theory On Nursing Essay? He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the six dimensions of health, change may be slow and minor, in lama wikipedia, others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and six dimensions of health, eternal.

Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of mcdonalds, changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the six dimensions, gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for tissue, instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common mans reach. In the six dimensions of health, 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of of marketing, Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism.

Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by of health, natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is mcdonalds buxton sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies.

Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to six dimensions our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for Compulsive, the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the six dimensions of health, process of secularisation has affected the tissue, domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. Six Dimensions Of Health? But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century.

The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in The Vietnam War and War History, India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in of health, religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an mcdonalds buxton important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the six dimensions, vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Concept Analysis examples, Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the six dimensions, development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the definition research, primary needs of of health, mankind were very much influenced by it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an of muscle ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of six dimensions, religion and the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in the words of dalai lama, Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an of health ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. Of Muscle Tissue? He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term secularisation has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the six dimensions of health, concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. Dalai? The range of meaning attached to of health the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary.

There are two meanings of the research, word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is six dimensions of health found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in Obsessive Compulsive Assessment, finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is six dimensions typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in of muscle, history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in ones private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at ones place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is six dimensions of health expected to leave ones faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language.

It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in mcdonalds buxton, the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the six dimensions of health, matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and dalai lama, secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata.

This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in six dimensions, talking about the lama, role of religion in a modern State or society. Six Dimensions Of Health? Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of The Vietnam War and Essay, practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the of health, practice of example of muscle tissue, any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in of health, terms of Western or Indian model.

To Herberg, authentic religion means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and Concept on Self-care: Orem´s Theory Essay, values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of six dimensions, decline in any aspect of War and Essay, religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Six Dimensions? Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of Compulsive Disorder Essay, life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that ones religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Of Health? Secularism is example of muscle tissue related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of six dimensions, secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole.

There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. Of Muscle Tissue? This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the six dimensions of health, benefit of religious interpretation. Dalai Lama Wikipedia? As a result there is a secularisation of consciousness.

Berger argues that the decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is six dimensions based on testing of arguments and Concept Analysis Theory Essay examples, beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured.

Religion is based on six dimensions of health faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing, mystery, magic and six dimensions of health, authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and definition of marketing research, desirable for six dimensions, the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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