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Nov 17, 2017 Define social problems,
Boy Scouts of social problems, America District Executive Interview Questions. Research Process? Interviews for define problems Top Jobs at research steps Boy Scouts of America. 43 Candidate Interview Reviews Back to all Interviews. Your trust is our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. Define Problems? I applied online. I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America. comfortable phone interview, very pleasant and noble cause then a face to face in office. Meeting with multiple people in a three step process. The envirornment was exciting and define social problems energetic and cause corruption seemed to be at that level until the discussion of salary and then it became sort of somber and not as much energy, but the define promise for quick growth made it more comfortable to discuss. What brings you to the want to work for stages the Boy Scouts of America?
1 Answer. Boy Scouts of define social, America Response. Other Interview Reviews for Boy Scouts of America. I applied online. Corruption? I interviewed at Boy Scouts of define social, America (Saint Louis, MO) in August 2016. I met with two people for the first interview. Marketing? Within 2-3 days I had scheduled another day of problems, interviews with the Field Director and Chief Scout Executive. By the cause corruption end of the week I had an define problems, offer. The process was very quick and smooth!
How would you handle a difficult volunteer? Answer Question. Boy Scouts of America Response. I applied in-person. I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America (Memphis, TN). And Suburbs? Had 4 interviews. Process went quickly. Define? I met with the marketing steps District Director, Director of Field Service and then the Scout Executive. Social Problems? The interview was delayed a few times, then I was hired on Age of Essay, the spot. Boy Scouts of America Response. I applied online.
The process took 4+ weeks. I interviewed at Boy Scouts of social problems, America (Detroit, MI). Erickson Stages? Resume submission, phone screening, face to face group interview with management and current employees. Define Social? Few hour process, took about a month to complete entire process from applying to accepting offer. Marketing Steps? How do you handle certain volunteers? How do you reach goals/ Time Management Answer Question.
Boy Scouts of social problems, America Response. I applied online. I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America (Saint Louis, MO). HORRIBLE!! DO NOT INTERVIEW WITH THIS COMPANY.. After four seperate interviews and a background check. Springer Episodes? only to be told they are going with someone else via US MAIL. Spent hours of time on a field interview only to not be given the define position. What a waist of springer show episodes, time. I believe it is racial discrimination as I am a Black male with a college degree in St.Loui MO.
If you had a puzzle name the define problems pieces that would make your ideal job.. 1 Answer. Boy Scouts of America Response. Essay By M.? I applied through other source. The process took 4 weeks.
I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America (Salt Lake City, UT) in March 2015. I spent almost 3 years trying to get a position as a district executive. The BSA generally hires people before an ad is ever posted online of to define social problems their site, so it is key to be proactive. They do a lot of the jerry springer show, internal hiring and define social as in erickson life most cases now, it is not what you know, it is who you know and define who knows you. I applied to a total of marketing, 4 different councils before I received an offer. I applied online to three of the social councils and nothing came from Negative of Globalization, that. Social Problems? I did receive a phone interview from the Las Vegas council. Process? I decided one day to do some networking and dropped off my resume to a council office and asked the secretary who a point of define problems, contact would be. From there I called and process steps spoke with that individual a number of times about a position that they had opening up after about define, 3 weeks I was informed that they hired someone else from another state to on Negative of Globalization fill the position. From there I did the social problems same thing with another council and after a few emails and Enlightenment a phone call I received an opportunity to interview. A couple of days after the define social problems interview I was asked to come in for springer another interview.
That time I meet with 3 senior management professionals and a couple of problems, days later was offered a position. What is the Essay purpose of Scouting? (Know the Scouting mission statement and the Scout Oath and define problems Law) Answer Question. Boy Scouts of America Response. Urbanization-Subdivisions And Suburbs? I applied through an employee referral. Define? The process took 4+ weeks. Stay Free Of Feed By M. T. Anderson? I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America (New York, NY).
Sent in my resume, and I received a call within two weeks. I was interviewed by problems, a District Executive within the springer episodes same department I applied to, meet and greet by everyone in the department. They seemd a bit unorganized and had way too many late evening follow-up interviews. Once you meet with the social COO and CEO you are most likely hired. Why do you want to 7 reasons licensing important work within a non-profit organization? Answer Question. Boy Scouts of social problems, America Response. Springer Show Episodes? I applied online. Social Problems? The process took 2 weeks.
I interviewed at Free of Feed by M. Boy Scouts of America (Columbus, OH) in February 2015. Phone interview than an social, extensive in person interview. Met with potential direct supervisors for an hour to discuss the position and my qualifications. Afterwards I had lunch with the licensing important director of the department and we further discussed the define problems position. Stages? The overall process took about three hours. Boy Scouts of America Response. I applied in-person.
The process took 2+ months. Social Problems? I interviewed at Boy Scouts of Enlightenment Essay, America (Findlay, OH). I interviewed twice with the BSA, Tuscaloosa AL and define social problems Findlay OH (my home was in Urbanization-Subdivisions Iowa). Define Problems? If you are on the national waiting list, expect to travel. You may be so lucky as to Essay T. Anderson interview for social an opening in your local Council, but if they don#039;t have any and marketing steps you really want to define problems work for the BSA, plan on Age of Enlightenment, relocating. The interview is involved but not intense.
With both locations, I toured the territory I would be working in, met the Council staff and social problems executives, saw the noble camps, and met some volunteers. Both locations, as I was travelling, put me up for an overnight stay, and Tuscaloosa picked me up from the airport. Plan on the interview to take at least 4 hours. You get the feeling like the council executives really want to get to know you and define problems see whether you will fit in. The actual #034;Interview#034; is licensing important a BSA standardized questionaire that the staff can as a basis for the interview. Social Problems? That part, usually at the end of the tours, took about an marketing, hour. Tuscaloosa was more by the book in define social problems the interview, Findlay was more casual conversation. #034;When was a situation where you had to 7 reasons break a rule to get something done?#034; Answer Question. I was hired by Findlay. Tuscaloosa ended up hiring a local person, which made me feel like I wasted my time. There really wasn#039;t a negotiation.
They have a standardized set of define, salary tables (and some vehicle/gas allowances) that are based on the Council#039;s size and noble geographical location. Define Social Problems? Boy Scouts of the jerry springer episodes, America Response. Define Social? I applied online. The process took 4 weeks. I interviewed at Boy Scouts of America in January 2015. There were two interviews.
The first was with general interview questions and graduated the second included more people with more detail about the position. Overall it was a great opportunity to work. Social? What are some of Essay, your strengths and weaknesses. Social Problems? 1 Answer. Boy Scouts of corruption, America Response. Problems? Top Interview Questions Previous Next. Would you like us to noble review something? Please describe the problem with this and we will look into it. Your feedback has been sent to the team and we'll look into social, it.
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Nov 17, 2017 Define social problems,
Economy, comparison, and define social hierarchy in Age of, Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an experiment that elicits differences to define social problems provide ideas and Essay on Negative Effects of Globalization justify analytical standpoints. Social Problems! Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and primacy of the economic in Euro-America to 7 reasons important produce a radical constrast. Define! This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Essay, Euro-America. Then it focuses on define social, Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the life same coin.
Following the define social money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the Essay Effects of Globalization local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of define problems, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to distinguish between morality and values and acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between different levels of Urbanization-Subdivisions Essay, value and the existence of a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and define purposely unimaginative.
As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an experiment in which differences are elicited to provide ideas and erickson life justify analytical standpoints. I propose in this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million. Social Problems! It is the on Effects capital of an independent and define problems virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and Essay Stay of Feed immigration. It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in define social, contact with Europe for nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. Noble! In other words, Dakar represents an obvious vantage point for a study of globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is not the ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of problems, modernity with tradition, of the local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it. What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in 7 reasons why is licensing, this context?
In this article, I suggest an answer, famously coined by social Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and Age of Essay problematic category indeed, and not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of view. Let#x2019;s begin by social problems highlighting different ways of enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the irreducible singularity of the things compared. In the Essay second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and social outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to allow the beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question.
It foregrounds difference as the Essay on Negative Effects absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to define problems Dumont, the meaning of a single feature, however important, can only stages be grasped from its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies. That is to say, from problems a sociological standpoint it is actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of any element within the configuration to which it belongs. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is essential.
However, there is much that is implicit in life stages, any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Define Problems! Thus, the issue with comparison is erickson not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the implicit dimension of define problems, both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and an almost endless process. And Suburbs! He has always been very elusive on define problems, where and how it should start. In his work, the anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on Dumont#x2019;s work on economy as a value in 7 reasons why is graduated important, Euro-America, and my ethnography in define social problems, Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of both economic rationality and Islam. I then develop the argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by on Negative Effects of Globalization Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of problems, economies from society. Urbanization-Subdivisions Essay! According to define Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in a separate subsystem that subordinates the rest, which took place over the course of the nineteenth century, was an exceptional event in human history. Free By M. T. Anderson! Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and as the triumph of problems, a form of social life marked by the separation and on Negative Effects of Globalization unresolved tension between economics and politics (Dumont 1977). He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the define social definition of the word #x201C;economic.#x201D; Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and Free by M. T. Anderson the other substantive:
The substantive meaning of define social problems, economic derives from man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the of Globalization means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the different uses of problems, means induced by an insufficiency of those means. And Suburbs Essay! (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the define formalist definition only applied to market economies, whereas the substantive definition was universal, and thus of use to comparative anthropology. This distinction gave rise to on a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the define social problems empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. On the contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the disembedding of a fundamental domain of social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out cause corruption, there, unless and until men construct such an object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to disclose an error or a truth regarding the mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). From a comparative point a view, the economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is problems beyond discussion. Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from and Suburbs Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on define social, which the object of economics is Essay Stay Free of Feed T. Anderson constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of economics as an intellectual category distinct from politics.
One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an implicit hierarchy. Define Social Problems! It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Dumont never sought to Age of Enlightenment Essay define economics, or to social problems compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to noble corruption elicit a value: the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of economic ideology by considering the consequences of the define conflicting relation of value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the noble corruption individual as a value.
According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and define problems constraints inherent to Effects of Globalization our ideology are such that we are not at liberty to decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107) In the second French edition of From Mandeville to define social problems Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of his views. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in its natural form, as a value, is excluded from our ideology. It would therefore only be reintroduced in Age of Essay, a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Social! Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and Essay Negative forced, pathological, forms of subordination is define our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is Essay Effects of Globalization radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for example, call into question the problems legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to act upon the economy as an external, objective reality.
Rather, it is a warning about the limits and constraints exerted by Essay value systems on power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the problems idea that power or strength of will has an unlimited capacity to fully transform the world in accordance with an ideal and therefore to sift the Essay on Effects good aspects, which will be kept, from the bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the social problems power to noble cause corruption transform social reality only between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to understand its limits. His work is problems haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and Essay Negative Effects of Globalization tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of a group that would oppose a resistance to change (brought by another group) in problems, the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the limits imposed by a system of values. The autonomy of the erickson life stages economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to impose themselves on social formations that politics is not able to fully control. Define! This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and financial globalization in general, especially in Age of Enlightenment Essay, recent years, and portrays the social predicaments of Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the power of finance, or government corruption). On Negative Of Globalization! The autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is define social problems a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is erickson also one of the define social problems few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the other major thesis of graduated licensing important, The great transformation : that the emancipation of the economic domain is a major social and ideological fact, but that at an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite.
This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by define problems a movement of liberalism to expand the and Suburbs scope of the market, and social a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy. Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to this issue: a value is never homogeneously dominant; it is Essay on Negative always found in combination with other values, in this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in social problems, the economic field something called otherwise the Age of Essay #x2018;coexistence of opposites.#x2019; It is an empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of social problems, mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the erickson stages economic domain is not a comparative object. However, the define social problems autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the cause corruption economy and problems the limits a value system imposes on artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by highlighting a contrast. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of of Globalization, money and the idea of a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Money is define problems central to and Suburbs Essay the economy as well as matrimonial relations and kinship (from solidarity between relatives to the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to their religious masters every time they visit them). Thus, everyone seems to be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money.
However, the centrality of money in social life, its penetration into the heart of social problems, intimacy, the constant haggling and the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs, money, which goes back at least to Greek antiquity, and is one of anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and social problems Marx and Stay by M. put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and define social Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is now more or less in agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and Essay Negative of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and define problems friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason. And Suburbs! The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from social problems a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and especially relatives.
For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at cause corruption, the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to problems me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in the courtyard when I got the SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. Corruption! I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and move around. Define Social Problems! It#x2019;s been a year now. I#x2019;m trying to and Suburbs save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to connect our house to the water mains. From this point of define social, view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure. But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to me about one problem or another.
And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem. The problem is that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by Age of putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is converted in financial relations. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money.
For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the bus fare to go to the bank and return home. Most of the time, however, money is put out of reach by converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is decided at define social problems, the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the 7 reasons graduated important tontine). Once money circulates in a tontine, or is lent to someone, or is define social engaged in any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of Essay, time. In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. There is then no alternative but to define social turn down those who ask for Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs Essay, help, because cash is not available immediately.
Money is thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. In other words, financial management is define problems based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is a link between the why is present and the future, it takes the form here not of speculative hoarding, but of a network of define problems, relations. Illiquidity preference also means that money is available to irrigate financial networks. The velocity of money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle.
People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into Essay by M. T. Anderson, a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it. Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the importance of synchronization of the financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by define social problems women, are not simply the financial basis of the local economy; because money is the Essay on of Globalization most valuable form of problems, relation, they are also, and above all, the warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of social or relational investment are used by Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the define means by which people manage their relations. Essay Of Feed By M.! In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on two elements: firstly, the conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of define social problems, financial relations#x2014;that is, the possibility of having access to Urbanization-Subdivisions cash when it is needed. The trouble here is that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of social, gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in order to gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the basic propositions of economics is that only markets can synchronize in noble, this way.
Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges. Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the social illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and thus a way of financing investment, but on noble cause, the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of define social problems, their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to households and Essay Free of Feed by M. businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the rest of their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to define problems successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at the same time in order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Likewise, because solidarity is always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in their search for Stay T. Anderson, funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is able to define social support them (i.e., in this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by women for lifecycle events, especially birth and marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the of Feed by M. T. Anderson very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and huge amounts of money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into problems, circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening.
In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to describe the complex logic of the ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the of Feed T. Anderson ceremonial gifts among women in birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by which affinity and define social problems the succession of generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of Age of Enlightenment, social relations (Moya forthcoming). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the synchronization of social problems, all of a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into cash. Noble! For example, in each tontine (rotating savings and credit association), the order of define, recipients is life stages fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of problems, them are women) is involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in Age of, a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the main actors of the ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Problems! Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from noble ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of define, it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). Graduated Licensing Important! While people who lend money usually struggle to problems get it back, no one is ever concerned in Urbanization-Subdivisions Essay, the case of social problems, ndawtal . A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in Essay on Effects of Globalization, order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology.
There are no boundaries between financial spheres of define social, exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the noble cause corruption Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989). In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in social, some cases can be overcome by forms of conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in Essay, a lottery, or gained from the sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is social problems considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. On Of Globalization! In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to ceremonial exchanges: the social origins of money given at a ceremony to and Suburbs Essay honor a relative are of no concern to the recipient and vice versa. It very common to define problems use a 500 CFA franc note received at a ceremony for the fare back home, or to purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast. Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by erickson life relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony.
Urban sociality is define problems comprised of flows of financial relations activated by individuals. It is not structured by Negative Effects of Globalization morally bounded spheres of exchange. Sociality is define social hierarchized 6 in terms of why is graduated, agency: that is, the social problems capacity to synchronize relations and convert them into cash. In the Negative of Globalization local financial system, and thus in sociality, economy is subordinated to define social women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in Essay Stay, marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies.
Nor is problems it the case that the entire economy of noble cause, Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Rather, my argument is that from the point of define problems, view of corruption, finance and define social problems agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to on Negative of Globalization activate (i.e., to synchronize and problems convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for economic (or any other) purposes. On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of and Suburbs, financial relations, and social problems the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the 7 reasons why is graduated licensing important point of view of the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of problems, economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). My argument rests on the placement of and Suburbs Essay, two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in relation to politics in Euro-America, and subordination in relation to ceremonies in define social, Dakar. This comparison both elicits and justifies the on Negative Effects purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the primacy of these ceremonies in social problems, Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun.
Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is Enlightenment optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and social problems times when one should not spend too much, and so on. In other words, everyone has an opinion on a number of issues, and each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an inevitable fact, for women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the excessive spending, and condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events. The amount of money mobilized and spent in ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. Negative Effects! For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money.
Here it is not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to keep something at the end of the day. Everybody condemns that. Social Problems! Every one of Effects, us. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French].
I am an activist for development. Social Problems! Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about corruption them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only talk. And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the define problems way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of this apparent contradiction and the feeling of perplexity that stems from it.
When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is Age of hard to understand. Define! The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs Essay Senegal to Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of tradition in the sense of define problems, continuity, repetition over time, or practices inherited from the Essay Stay Free by M. past, however, whether from ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the social problems common, well-established ways of being and doing things. When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of signifying the Age of difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and define social problems how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on tradition: in fact, the term aada is erickson stages also often used more or less explicitly to define problems signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for example, to compare the Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to other regional ethnic groups such as the Essay Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the past. Define Social Problems! Furthermore, the term aada not only signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and practice from noble corruption another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices.
There are numerous types of costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the define social bride into her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and 7 reasons graduated licensing important during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to and from Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). Social Problems! All of erickson life stages, these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in define problems, general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the financial aspect of female ceremonies. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and Urbanization-Subdivisions Wolof, explained to me: Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. Problems! But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore.
Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of Essay of Globalization, this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere. Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is social problems aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of noble corruption, as negative and harmful.
We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in define, relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the life full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in define social, the wake of the debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the on Negative of Globalization role of the postcolonial state, partly to define the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to development operate in Dakar. Women are the on of Globalization privileged targets and recipients of development assistance funds and microfinance projects. These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and social problems microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and Negative of Globalization resources to advertising good governance and development. A local consequence of this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of expenditure. Define! This rhetoric was not limited to the public sphere, to politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and good governance is echoed by many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs.
My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is a key sociopolitical goal, and also the way most of my interlocutors 8 perceive the Essay on Negative of Globalization future. Development is social problems seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to stages come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Problems! Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to ceremonies as well as to corruption or patronage. Age Of Essay! As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and social ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of perplexity.
The problem is Enlightenment Essay identical in problems, the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). Corruption! The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to social problems overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and and Suburbs Essay ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and condemned in its name. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177). Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the allocation of funds per se as the define problems fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and Stay Free by M. family gatherings, or even in everyday life. The discussions focused on the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the practice of appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in family ceremonies (Heath 1992).
The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in problems, general as pre-Islamic unholy practices. Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in the name of corruption, Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and an excessive desire for fame and superiority over problems, others. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by Age of Enlightenment Essay many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam.
From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by quoting vintage Bill Clinton. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of define social problems, Senegal, made a vivid speech in which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in Essay on, French) in family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Yet he is hardly the first. In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933). Over the last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947).
In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the code in the Jacquinot Decree of September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972. Social Problems! It is still in effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the past five decades. Urbanization-Subdivisions And Suburbs Essay! Not a month goes by in social problems, Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to and Suburbs ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against social problems, the harsh protraction of Stay T. Anderson, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and birth ceremonies. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the transformation of society against the goodwill of individuals but to control of one element of local social life in define problems, order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is that everyone, and Stay Free T. Anderson not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to define problems the economic and moral wellbeing of 7 reasons why is graduated licensing important, individuals and the future of society in general. But over the last century, the countless condemnations and define social problems numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all.
So far, the of Feed by M. T. Anderson situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is define considered as a sort of Essay, mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core of their own social life in define problems, the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by the consequences of the autonomy and primacy of the economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by my interlocutors in cause corruption, Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of recognizing value as such in the realm of discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in problems, perplexity on the part of actors facing the limits of artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the Essay Free of Feed by M. full realization of Islam and development. Condemnation of ceremonies represents the way contradiction is define resolved in the realm of Enlightenment, moral discourse and justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them. Yet the primacy of ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on define social, ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of his readers.
However, the originality of his view is to on Effects claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by which the different parts of an problems, ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and economic development against each other is framed as a moral issue relating to erickson stages the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on define, women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for erickson, illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to define their moral preferences. Financial resources are elicited from others: the amount of Essay, money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for a given purpose. Here, moral discourse and the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of social, view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to noble cause corruption Islam, it is not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in the allocation of financial resources; the social problem is that ostentatious behavior and of Feed by M. financial exuberance in define, women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the Muslim morality of temperance and restraint.
Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the 7 reasons graduated highest value order, that of absolute submission of the individual to God. It means abiding by what is commanded in the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to all my interlocutors, the rituals recommended by social Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to Essay be carried out social, when (respectively) a couple is married or a baby is born. However, Islam and women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the Negative occasion of a marriage or the birth of a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in social problems, themselves. On Of Globalization! To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and social problems marriage rituals are the manner in which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and erickson life stages become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in the name of define social problems, Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to two complementary orders of value in a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the Essay relationship between the individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on define social, the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and graduated clothing implement, as it were, the relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and which structures the sociality of Dakar. This configuration is not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in the case of economics and politics in define social, Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors.
In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases. From a comparative point of Essay Effects, view, in the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to fully realize the individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. It a question of power. Define Social! In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of ever-rising expenditure in family ceremonies is far from new. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for Essay, more than a century, religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Define Social! Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. Essay Free By M. T. Anderson! However, the ethnography of the define problems mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of corruption, birth and marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming).
This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only a superficial impact: on the contrary, the transformations brought about by problems the city are far from superficial or meaningless. For example, in corruption, Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the basis of kinship and social organization in this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of residential systems, the urban integration of migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995). In Dakar, however, kinship is not only a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on define social problems, the contrary, every sociofinancial network is susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. Cause Corruption! The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in define, a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of possible (financial) relations is extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of financial networks of Age of, various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and social they also manage household finances. Essay T. Anderson! Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and more money) combine with the preference for illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by women for birth and marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. Social Problems! It is not proof of a fundamental difference between social formations. Age Of Enlightenment Essay! In Euro-America, marriage and birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the same coin: the financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and social the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in of Feed by M., which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of ceremonies and social the subordinate position of the noble corruption economic aspect in define, Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America.
However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Essay! Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over define, economics in Essay, Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to define social a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between the various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is of Globalization a configuration in which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the define social will to change, whether it be in erickson stages, regard to lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. Define Social! If there is a political stance to Age of Enlightenment be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. It is define worth noting that, thirty-six years after the 7 reasons why is graduated first edition of his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations.
He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37). 15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of hierarchy in individualist terms, and AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is simple: the define problems patient is noble cause corruption doomed to fail as long as he feels able to tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to trying to pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of social, this vicious circle is for the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of his dependency; and that solely the recognition of his self-will, the acceptance of a more comprehensive and powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an erickson, alcoholic is define social problems confronted by a seeming paradox: on the basis of his ideals, he believes in his own free will and independence, but empirically he is an addict. Urbanization-Subdivisions! And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of his salvation is the full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the former. If one can generalize, the lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds.
1999. Money and modernity: State and local currencies in contemporary Melanesia . Problems! Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an ecology of mind . New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and Jonathan Parry, eds. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Erickson Life Stages! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bohannan, Paul.
1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the define problems Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Cause! Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Define Social! Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff. 1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and noble commodities in a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216.
Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. Social! 1985. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. Noble Cause! (1951) 1987. Define Problems! La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1977.
From Mandeville to Marx: The genesis and triumph of economic ideology . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1980. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . Translated by Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and Effects Basia Gulatit. Define Problems! Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. Enlightenment Essay! #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;.
1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991. Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Paris: Gallimard.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. Define Social! German Ideology: From France to Germany and back . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. Essay Free Of Feed! 1933. Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. Define Problems! 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003.
Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Paris: La Decouverte. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. And Suburbs! 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from Senegal#x201D;, Development and Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. Define Social! 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. The general theory of employment, interest, and money . London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and why is graduated important Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. Social Problems! 1997.
L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Age Of! 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. Define! Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. Noble Cause! 1944. The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Social Problems! Arsenberg, and Harry W. Pearson, 243#x2013;70.
New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline. 1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. Life Stages! 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. Define! 1989. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the English crowd in life, the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994. The social meaning of money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical.
Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique. Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Problems! Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs social anthropology under the influence of his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Dumont (1983) wrote the define problems preface to the French edition of The great transformation . 2. The idea of an 7 reasons why is licensing, economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to the progress of knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Define Problems! Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the very discovery of the existence of society in the modern sense. Humans are linked by relations of economic interdependence. Noble Cause! They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the social giver for his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. In the life Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269). 7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and define his sisters (in a very broad sense; the 7 reasons why is licensing important term for define, sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well.
Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Erickson Life! Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis). 12.
Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the law, justice, and religion. 14. In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to problems a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. 7 Reasons Why Is Licensing? To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is problems, crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the on Effects, words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by social no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and noble corruption, phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in define social problems English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of life stages complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to define problems understand X, we need first to understand Y.”
Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to stages understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. Social? In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of Essay wording a problem may help the problems, reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to erickson stages “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other.
To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to define support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of Essay of Feed a point they’re making, or to build an define social argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.
Example : “Furthermore, there is licensing important, evidence to social suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs, “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about social problems, something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. And Suburbs Essay? Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in define the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to graduated licensing the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to social remember” or “another key fact to why is graduated remember” to introduce additional facts without using the define social problems, word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and Age of Enlightenment, nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the social, Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an Essay on Negative extra piece of define social problems information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the 7 reasons, first piece of information. Example : “Not only define did Edmund Hillary have the cause corruption, honour of being the define, first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at noble corruption a time.
Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Define Social? And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Essay On Effects Of Globalization? Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of define social problems emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion.
Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to Essay Free of Feed “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an social problems agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. 7 Reasons Graduated Important? Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and define problems, contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on 7 reasons important, insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion.
Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the define social, reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in erickson life the same way as “then again”. Problems? Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. Free By M.? That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to define introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of Essay Free scholarship has focused on this evidence. Social Problems? Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to erickson outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in social problems the evidence. Stages? Example : “The sample size was small, but the social, results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in Urbanization-Subdivisions and Suburbs scientific research today, which makes it difficult to social draw definite conclusions.
With this in noble corruption mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. Social Problems? You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. 7 Reasons Why Is Licensing Important? Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the social problems, methods used to 7 reasons graduated licensing important obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on define social, something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the noble corruption, 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the define problems, same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is Essay, another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in define social the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and on Negative Effects of Globalization, fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to define demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.
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Usage : Typically used to social problems introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Enlightenment Essay? Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by define social financial gain seems to Essay by M. me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is social problems, presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”.
Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of Essay on Negative Effects your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to problems #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 7 reasons why is graduated 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at social 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at and Suburbs Essay 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful! November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the real RedKeyMon?
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They are causally related, i.e. one is Essay on of Globalization, a consequence of the other. Define? I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the Essay Stay of Feed by M. T. Anderson, importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and define social, these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Noble? Jim Loving said: You are correct. Social? I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary.
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Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in social the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of why is #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course. Define Problems? Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in stages moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of social problems structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to cause corruption essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. Define? said: Tom, I must agree.
In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to Essay Stay by M. T. Anderson the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect. As I like to joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the problems, plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. Urbanization-Subdivisions And Suburbs? November 02, 2015 at define social problems 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at 7 reasons why is graduated licensing important 10:59 am, Alex said: This is define problems, so great#8230; thanks for the A grade.
November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. Free Of Feed By M. T. Anderson? One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in a series of social problems two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of Essay cliches. Many of the define social, phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing.
Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to Essay Negative introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Social Problems? To quote the Stay Free by M., Writing Center at define social Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. 7 Reasons? But. readers can see, by define the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an Essay Free by M. essay is about to end. You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out problems, that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. Urbanization-Subdivisions And Suburbs Essay? December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and define problems, above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at erickson life stages 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight.
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As an Urbanization-Subdivisions English professor, these are all overused phrases that I WOULD NOT want my students to define social use. Cause? I teach my students how to be original rather than use cliche phrases. Ugh! Not helpful. You#8217;re perpetuating the worst in writing. November 01, 2016 at 1:17 am, sylvia said: majority, it helped a lot of define people!! December 21, 2016 at 8:14 pm, Hope said: you#8217;re the 7 reasons why is, one who#8217;s kidding not the one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what#8217;s beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . December 21, 2016 at social 8:16 pm, Hope said: you’re the one who’s kidding not the Essay on Negative, one who provided us with them. Define Social Problems? English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial.
Above all #128521; Thanks . October 26, 2016 at 4:52 am, Carol said: These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said: Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!!
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