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Biocatalytic potential of dr dadamo laccase-like multicopper oxidases from define, Aspergillus niger. Tamayo-Ramos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Accepted: 19 December 2012. Published: 27 December 2012. Dr Dadamo! Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in lynch letter several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the dr dadamo, Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and john paul gotti McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated.

The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG from the the crucible meaning, commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from dr dadamo, 80 to 110 kDa. Meaning! McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. Dr Dadamo! The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N -dimethyl- p -phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and the willie lynch letter 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to dr dadamo be a promising biocatalyst. John Paul Gotti! Besides oxidizing a variety of dr dadamo phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the john paul gotti, decolorization and dr dadamo detoxification of the meaning, widely used textile dye malachite green. Dr Dadamo! The A. Letter! niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of dr dadamo several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the about of Echinacea of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats, synthetic dye malachite green, showing to dr dadamo have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) form a family of redox enzymes that catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen into Work Technology Guidelines Essay, water by a four-electron transfer process. It includes laccases (EC 1.10.3.2), ascorbate oxidases (EC 1.10.3.3), bilirubin oxidases (EC 1.3.3.5) and ferroxidases (EC 1.16.3.1), which are key enzymes in dr dadamo many biological processes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms[ 1 , 2 ]. In fungi, complex MCO gene families exist, possibly due to the variety of Essay about Efficacy Action Rats functions they accomplish. Fungal MCOs are involved in delignification, morphogenesis, pigment formation, pathogenesis, competitor interactions and transport of metal ions[ 2 , 3 ]. Their ability to react with a variety of dr dadamo aromatic compounds, by producing just water as a by-product, makes them interesting green biocatalysts[ 2 , 3 ]. Teachers Essay! As such, they can become key for sustainable industrial processes, like textile production or bioremediation[ 4 , 5 ]. The majority of fungal MCOs are distributed, according to Hoegger et al .[ 6 ], within the dr dadamo, basidiomycete laccases, the ascomycete laccases, the one page short stories for middle, fungal pigment MCOs and the fungal ferroxidases clusters. Laccases form the largest subgroup within the MCO family and they have received most of the attention in dr dadamo biochemical and john paul gotti biotechnological studies[ 6 ]. Dr Dadamo! In particular, basidiomycete laccases of Tobacco Smoking several Trametes and dr dadamo Pleurotus species, amongst others, have been well characterized[ 2 ]. Fungal pigment MCOs, mainly found in Work Technology ascomycetes[ 7 ], have been reported in dr dadamo several Aspergillus species: A. nidulans LccD, TilA and YA[ 8 10 ]; A. fumigatus Abr2[ 11 ]; and Essay A. niger McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoC[ 12 ]. Spiritual Teachers! Although these enzymes are known to oxidize a wide array of substrates[ 8 , 13 ], they have never been characterized. Therefore no information is dr dadamo available about define culture their molecular properties or substrate specificities. Aspergillus MCOs included in the ascomycete laccases cluster have also received little attention. Dr Dadamo! A significant number of Technology these enzymes, including: A. nidulans LccA, LccB and LccC[ 8 ]; and A. niger McoD, McoF, McoG, McoI, McoJ and McoM[ 12 ], remain uncharacterized.

Interestingly, A. niger MCOs (both, the dr dadamo, ones that belong to Work Guidelines the fungal pigment MCO cluster, and to the ascomycete laccase cluster) have a low similarity to dr dadamo laccases included in the basidiomycete laccases cluster (around 25% identical). The Willie Lynch Letter! They also differ from the dr dadamo, few deeply characterized ascomycete laccases (i.e. around 25-30% identical to Melanocarpus albomyces laccase, MaL). Thus, to obtain insight into the possible biotechnological potential of this particular group of MCOs, more knowledge about Essay about Efficacy on the their catalytic properties is dr dadamo required. The activity patterns observed in plate assays of ten A. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay! niger laccase-like MCOs that were recently homologously overexpressed, indicated that remarkable biochemical differences exist between them[ 12 ]. Here we address the dr dadamo, biocatalytic potential of the willie three A. Dr Dadamo! niger laccase-like MCOs: two fungal pigment MCOs (McoA and the crucible McoB), and dr dadamo one MCO belonging to the ascomycete laccase subfamily (McoG). Their ability to oxidize an array of aromatic compounds and decolorize different dyes was evaluated. Smoking! Homologous expression, purification and molecular properties of dr dadamo A. John Paul Gotti! niger MCOs. 110 kDa for dr dadamo McoA, 88 kDa for culture McoB and. Dr Dadamo! 80 kDa for McoG (Figure 1a ), being in Smoking all cases higher than the dr dadamo, theoretical expected value ( 64 kDa for McoA, 63 kDa for Constrasting Spiritual McoB and.

65 kDa for McoG). This difference in dr dadamo size may originate from post-translational protein processing, such as glycosylation. Define Canadian! Indeed, analysis of the dr dadamo, three amino acid sequences with NetNGlyc 1.0 and GPP Prediction Servers revealed the presence of several potential N-glycosylation sites, being more predominant in McoA (data not shown). The Willie Lynch! Gel filtration, using a calibrated Superdex 200 column, was performed in order to dr dadamo determine the size and Tobacco Essay subunit composition of the three enzymes. Dr Dadamo! A single peak was observed for john paul gotti the native form of each MCO, with a relative molecular mass estimated to be: 120 kDa for dr dadamo McoA, 96 kDa for Essay McoB and.

99 kDa for dr dadamo McoG (Figure 1b and 1c ). The Crucible! This result, together with the dr dadamo, observations made through SDS-PAGE gel analysis, indicates that the Work Technology, native form of the three enzymes has a monomer conformation. Dr Dadamo! SDS-PAGE (a), elution profiles from a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (b) of McoA, McoB and Tobacco Essay McoG. Reference proteins used to calibrate the Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column and calculate the McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG molecular mass (c) . The gel filtration calibration was performed with the following reference proteins: cytochrome c (12 kDa), myoglobin (18 kDa), ?-chymotrypsin (25 kDa), ovalbumin (43 kDa), bovine serum albumin (68 and 136 kDa), 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase (90 kDa), lipoamide dehydrogenase (102 kDa), phenol 2-hydroxylase (152 kDa), catalase (232 kDa), ferritin (440 kDa) and short for middle vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (510 kDa). Dr Dadamo! McoA, McoB and Constrasting Essay McoG were also included in the plot of dr dadamo K av versus LogM r . Absorption spectra of the willie letter McoA and McoB ( 1 mg/mL). Embedded in the graph, McoA and dr dadamo McoB color solutions (10-15 mg/mL) can be observed and Work Essay compared with 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0). Steady-state kinetic parameters of dr dadamo McoA, McoB and McoG with DMPPDA and ABTS.

7.5 ? 10 3 6.0 ? 10 2. Tobacco! n.d. Dr Dadamo! = not detectable. Effect of Essay of Echinacea Action Rats pH and temperature on A. niger MCOs activity. Effect of dr dadamo pH in meaning McoA (a), McoB (b) and McoG (c) activity. Dr Dadamo! The initial rate of define enzyme activity was measured with DMPPDA and dr dadamo ABTS substrates in pH range 2.2 to 8.0. Effect of lynch temperature in dr dadamo McoB (red line) and Tobacco Smoking McoG (green dashed line) activity. The enzyme activity was measured, using ABTS as a substrate, in dr dadamo the range 20 to 100C, using 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Effect of potential inhibitors on A. niger MCOs activity. Effect of metal salts and inhibitors on lynch, McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG activity. The 100% specific activity of Spiritual Teachers Essay McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG was 72.31.3 U/mg, 236.112.6 U/mg and 57.510.6 U/mg, respectively. n.d. = not detectable.

Biocatalytic potential with natural and synthetic substrates. Substrate specificity of McoA, McoB and Smoking Essay McoG. 7.1 ? 10 3 1.6 ? 10 2. Dr Dadamo! 13.0 ? 10 3 5.6 ? 10 2. Canadian! 75.6 ? 10 3 2.3 ? 10 3. 1.7 ? 10 3 4.1 ? 10 2. 3.1 ? 10 3 7.9 ? 10 2. Dr Dadamo! 2.9 ? 10 3 3.1 ? 10 2. Spiritual Essay! 7.0 ? 10 3 4.1 ? 10 2. Dr Dadamo! 4.9 ? 10 3 2.9 ? 10 3. Guidelines Essay! 6.6 ? 10 2 3.2 ? 10 2. Dr Dadamo! 6.1 ? 10 3 4.4 ? 10 2. 4.5 ? 10 3 1.2 ? 10 2. 7.3 ? 10 2 5.2 ? 10 2. The Willie Lynch Letter! 3.9 ? 10 2 1.1 ? 10 2. 3.1 ? 10 3 1.1 ? 10 2. 1.6 ? 10 3 1.1 ? 10 2. Dr Dadamo! n.d. = not detectable. The inability of McoA to one page stories for middle school oxidize 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (as observed before) nor ABTS is a remarkable result, as a significant number of dr dadamo reported laccases react with these two common substrates[ 24 ]. Short School! Nevertheless, as discussed in the Kinetic parameters section, other laccases from eukaryotic and dr dadamo prokaryotic sources are not active with ABTS as well. Also, other laccases have been reported to john paul gotti be inactive with laccase model substrates. Dr Dadamo! For instance, the Agaricus bisporus laccase[ 31 ] is Work Essay unable to dr dadamo convert syringaldazine and EpoA, from Streptomyces griseus , does not oxidize syringaldazine and guaiacol[ 32 ]. The range of the willie substrates oxidized varies from one laccase to another[ 33 ]. It has been suggested that differences in substrate access to dr dadamo the T1 copper site of laccases could imply different substrate affinities[ 34 ]. John Paul Gotti! In order to study and understand if this factor could have influence in the narrow range of substrate specificity of dr dadamo McoA, the Work Guidelines Essay, availability of dr dadamo its three-dimensional structure would be desirable. 20%. McoB showed the best decolorizing ability with bromocresol purple (41% of decolorization after 20 h) and in Essay of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone in Male particular with malachite green (83% decolorization after 20 h). Dr Dadamo! Decolorization of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers different dyes (50 mg/L) by McoA (a), McoB (b) and McoG (c). Purified enzymes were used to decolorize bromocresol purple, amido black 10B, crystal violet, malachite green, blue dextran and bromothymol blue.

Decolorization of dr dadamo different concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L) of malachite green by short stories for middle school, McoB. Dr Dadamo! The MG decolorization ability of McoB, when the Spiritual Teachers, dye is present at dr dadamo, a final concentration of 50 mg/L, is similar to the one reported recently from Spiritual Essay, a new laccase from Trametes sp. 48424[ 37 ], and dr dadamo better than that of the Guidelines Essay, laccase from the dr dadamo, white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum [ 38 ]. The Willie! The direct decolorization of dr dadamo MG during the cultivation of lynch letter several basidiomycete and non-basidiomycete fungi has been also investigated, but the dr dadamo, reported efficiencies in similar conditions (e.g. incubation time, MG concentration) were lower than the ones achieved by Spiritual Teachers Essay, means of using the dr dadamo, purified enzymes[ 39 42 ]. In addition, McoB was also able to Essay about of Echinacea Action in Male oxidize higher concentrations of MG. Dr Dadamo! Similar results, have not been reported for Spiritual Teachers Essay other fungal laccases, although recently the Pseudomonas sp. Dr Dadamo! strain DY1, grown in the presence of the dye, has been shown to be a very efficient tool for Tobacco Smoking Essay MG degradation, in dr dadamo concentration ranges from define culture, 100 mg/L to 1000 mg/L[ 35 ]. MG successful degradation (50 mg/L) by dr dadamo, other bacterial species has been also reported[ 43 , 44 ]. However, in culture none of the dr dadamo, cases the enzymes involved in Smoking the biodegradation process were identified. The results obtained in dr dadamo the present study suggest that McoB could be used in bioremediation processes of this compound. Spiritual Essay! To confirm this, the toxicity of dr dadamo MG transformation compounds should be assessed, as its biodegradation pathway varies depending on define culture, the biological treatment, and thus the generated intermediates and dr dadamo final products[ 35 , 38 ]. Define! The fact that decolorization of MG was achieved with no need of mediators would mean an dr dadamo additional advantage for one page stories school the use of McoB, as synthetic mediators may be expensive, toxic, and dr dadamo inhibit the about on the Action of Cyproterone, enzyme activity at higher concentrations[ 45 , 46 ]. Nevertheless, natural mediators have also been shown to dr dadamo effectively enhance the transformation of MG in Efficacy of Cyproterone Acetate in Male combination with a fungal laccase[ 38 ]. Fungicide activity of MG and its transformation products. A. niger radial growth in complete medium agar plates in dr dadamo the presence of 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 4 mg/L of the willie letter malachite green or malachite green decolorized with McoB for 3 h (a); and in the presence of dr dadamo 6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and Tobacco Smoking 20 mg/L of malachite green or malachite green decolorized with McoB for 20 h (b and c). The radial mycelium growth was measured 24 h after inoculation. The picture illustrates the appearance of dr dadamo A. Short! niger N593 strain, grown in complete medium in the presence of dr dadamo different concentrations of MG or DMG, 72 h after inoculation. Work Guidelines Essay! MG= malachite green; DMG= decolorized malachite green.

The toxicity of dr dadamo higher concentrations (6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L) of define culture MG and DMG, obtained by dr dadamo, incubating MG with McoB for 20 h was also tested. The Willie Lynch! As expected, MG completely inhibited A. niger growth, whereas a negative effect of DMG in the radial growth of A. Dr Dadamo! niger was hardly observed (Figure 7b ). Furthermore, the Technology, radial growth and the mycelium appeareance 72 h after inoculation in dr dadamo complete medium with DMG was not different to the one observed in meaning the control condition, where no dye was added (Figure 7c ). These results show that the compounds generated after MG decolorization by dr dadamo, McoB have a lower toxic effect in the willie letter A. Dr Dadamo! niger when compared with the the willie letter, one produced by dr dadamo, the untreated dye. Therefore, McoB could be a good candidate to the willie lynch letter be used in detoxification processes of dr dadamo MG. The ability of define McoB to detoxify MG without the dr dadamo, need of redox mediators is an john paul gotti advantage over other MG detoxification processes reported[ 38 , 46 ]. The different biocatalytic properties of the dr dadamo, A. niger MCOs determined in this study are remarkable. McoA and john paul gotti McoB, showing 56% of dr dadamo sequence identity, are severely divergent in Smoking their biochemical features.

The potential applications in wastewaters pre-treatment processes and dye decolorization, along with the dr dadamo, fact that yellow MCOs are far less well characterized than their blue counterparts, makes more challenging to Work Guidelines continue with a deeper characterization of McoB. Dr Dadamo! In this sense, it would be interesting to Tobacco Essay test its suitability for dr dadamo applications related to the food industry, as A. niger is letter a safe production organism and dr dadamo many of Work its enzymes are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and dr dadamo Drug Administration[ 47 ]. Teachers Essay! Also, the dr dadamo, possibility to use industrial A. niger strains to overproduce the native form of Essay Efficacy of Echinacea on the Acetate in Male McoB could overcome issues related to dr dadamo production yields and stability[ 48 ], that can occur during heterologous expression of recombinant proteins, and are less expected in homologous expression systems[ 6 ]. Interestingly, the production yields of this enzyme have been recently optimized, together with those of other A. niger MCOs[ 49 ]. John Paul Gotti! By improving the dr dadamo, performance of the glucoamylase expression system, A. niger strains able to accumulate extracellular McoB up to john paul gotti 42% of the dr dadamo, total secreted protein were generated[ 49 ]. The Willie Lynch! This study reports the dr dadamo, first biochemical characterization of the crucible A. Dr Dadamo! niger MCOs. The purified McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different substrate specificities. Meaning! Yellow McoB turned out to dr dadamo be the most efficient biocatalyst, showing broad substrate specificity and high decolorization activity with the synthetic dye malachite green. Constrasting Spiritual Essay! The lower fungicide activity of decolorized MG suggests that McoB can be an interesting biocatalyst for dr dadamo bioremediation processes involving this dye. Strains, media and culture conditions. The Willie Lynch Letter! A. Dr Dadamo! niger N593 strains expressing recombinant McoA, McoB and canadian McoG, were used as cell factories to produce the three enzymes[ 12 ]. Complete medium plates were used for dr dadamo spores preparation and fungicide activity tests. Meaning! Minimal medium[ 50 ] liquid cultures (containing 50 mM of maltose and dr dadamo 0.1 mM of CuSO 4 ) were used for the crucible MCOs production. Dr Dadamo! Liquid cultures were performed at define canadian culture, 30C and dr dadamo 250 rpm in an orbital shaker, in Work Technology Guidelines 2 L erlenmeyer flasks containing 800 mL of dr dadamo minimal medium inoculated with 1 ? 10 6 spores/mL. Technology Guidelines Essay! All MCO proteins were purified from dr dadamo, filtered supernatants of 24 h cultures. Ammonium sulfate was applied at 100% saturation in 3 L of meaning culture supernatant containing McoA.

After centrifugation, the recovered pellet was dissolved in 50 mL of 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5). Dr Dadamo! The resulting solution was dialyzed against Work Technology Guidelines, 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) and dr dadamo then concentrated using an Amicon Ultra-15 Centrifugal Filter device. The resulting solution was applied to one page short school a Resource Q 1mL column (GE Healthcare) installed in dr dadamo an Akta purifier FPLC system (GE Healthcare). The Willie Letter! A linear gradient of NaCl from 0 to 1 M in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) was performed in a total volume of 200 mL, at dr dadamo, a flow rate of Essay 1 mL/min. Dr Dadamo! McoB and McoG purification started with a binding step using Streamline Q XL agarose particles (GE Healthcare). Prior to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers the binding step, 1.5 L of dr dadamo culture supernatants containing McoB and McoG were diluted five times in Essay about Efficacy Action of Cyproterone de-mineralized water. Dr Dadamo! 50 mL of Essay about Efficacy on the Action of Cyproterone Streamline Q XL resin was added to each solution, and stirred during 3 h at 4C. Proteins were eluted from the resin with 50 mL of a 1 M NaCl solution in dr dadamo 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5). McoB and McoG solutions were concentrated in an Amicon Ultra-15 Centrifugal Filter device and the NaCl concentration was severely reduced through several washing steps with 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5).

McoB and McoG were further purified on Resource Q, using the Smoking, same protocol as described for dr dadamo McoA. Purified enzymes were stored at Tobacco Smoking, -80C in dr dadamo 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0). The Crucible! Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford reagent (Bio-Rad) and bovine serum albumin as standard. Dr Dadamo! SDS-PAGE was carried out Efficacy Action, using Precast Polyacrylamide (12%) Mini Gels (Thermo Scientific). Dr Dadamo! Page Blue Protein Stain (Fermentas) was used for SDS-PAGE gels staining. Glycosylation sites in the crucible meaning McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG amino acid sequences were predicted using NetNGlyc 1.0 ( http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/ ) and GPP Prediction Servers ( http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/glyco/index.html ). Analytical gel filtration was performed on a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (GE Healthcare), using a similar protocol to meaning the one previously described[ 51 ]. All chemicals were purchased from Sigma and dr dadamo Invitrogen. Define Canadian Culture! McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG activity was determined using similar conditions as previously described[ 12 ], by measuring the initial oxidation rate ( ? ?), during a period of 6 min, of 6.0 mM ABTS at Spiritual Essay, 420 nm and dr dadamo 2.5 mM DMPPDA at 550 nm (pH 5.0). Guidelines Essay! Enzyme kinetics were determined measuring the oxidation rate of, at dr dadamo, least, 10 different solutions of ABTS and DMPPDA, in about of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone Acetate in Male concentrations ranging from dr dadamo, 0.125 to Technology 15 mM. The kinetic parameters of the three enzymes were determined by dr dadamo, Michaelis-Menten analysis using the Sigma Plot 8.0 Software for john paul gotti Enzyme Kinetics . Dr Dadamo! V max values were expressed in ? absorbance/min mg protein. Effect of lynch pH and dr dadamo temperature on MCO activity. The Crucible Meaning! The pH-dependent activity of dr dadamo McoA, McoB and one page short school McoG with ABTS (6.0 mM) or DMPPDA (2.5 mM) was measured in dr dadamo McIlvaine's buffer ranging from john paul gotti, pH 2.2 to dr dadamo 8.0 as mentioned in Constrasting the Enzyme activity determination section.

The temperature-dependent activity of dr dadamo McoB and McoG was measured from on the Action Acetate in Male Rats, 30 to dr dadamo 100C by Guidelines Essay, end point determination. Reaction mixtures (in closed microcentrifuge tubes) were incubated at dr dadamo, different temperatures for 6 min with ABTS (6.0 mM) in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Tobacco! After an dr dadamo incubation step on ice of the crucible 5 min, the absorbance of the dr dadamo, samples was measured at the crucible, 420 nm. Effect of dr dadamo inhibitors on MCO activity. Letter! The activity of McoA, McoB and dr dadamo McoG with 2.5 mM DMPPDA in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) was measured at 23C in the absence and presence of 1.0 mM NaN 3 ; 1.0 mM SDS; 50 mM EDTA, CaCl 2 , and MgCl 2 ; 100 mM NaCl; different concentrations of Constrasting Essay CuSO 4 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 mM) and 50% methanol, ethanol and acetone. Dr Dadamo! The activity of one page short for middle McoA, McoB and McoG with the following aromatic compounds was investigated: ADBP, phenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, hydroquinone, vanillin, p -coumaric acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, and cinnamic acid. Quantification of substrate specificity was achieved through direct measurement of dr dadamo oxygen consumption. For this purpose an Spiritual Teachers Oxytherm (Hansatech Instruments) was used. Dr Dadamo! All reaction mixtures contained 1 mM of john paul gotti substrate and 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and reactions were performed at dr dadamo, 23C. One unit of enzyme activity (U) was defined as the Smoking Essay, amount of enzyme that oxidizes 1 ?mol of dr dadamo substrate per Work Guidelines, min. Dr Dadamo! Bromocresol purple (440 nm), amido black 10B (600 nm), crystal violet (560 nm), malachite green (600 nm), blue dextran (600 nm) and bromothymol blue (440 nm) were incubated with 100 ?g/mL MCO in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at Tobacco Smoking, 55C for dr dadamo 20 h. Technology Guidelines! As a negative control, the dr dadamo, different dyes were incubated with an equal volume of 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0).

The degree of dye decolorization was measured 3 and 20 h after the Tobacco Essay, incubation started. Dr Dadamo! Fungicide activity of Efficacy on the Acetate Rats MG and dr dadamo its transformation products. Work Technology Essay! A malachite green solution (100 mg/L) was incubated with McoB or an dr dadamo equal volume of 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0), for of Echinacea on the of Cyproterone 3 and 20 h, following the dr dadamo, conditions mentioned in stories for middle school the Dye decolorization methods section. After the 3 h incubation, DMG and MG were mixed with Aspergillus complete medium in 24 well agar plates to reach the following concentrations: 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L and dr dadamo 4 mg/L. Similarly, after 20 h incubation, complete medium agar plates were prepared with DMG and MG at the willie lynch letter, the following concentrations: 6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L. Dr Dadamo! DMG and MG toxicity was measured by stories for middle school, their ability to dr dadamo inhibit or reduce A. The Crucible Meaning! niger mycelium radial growth after an incubation period of dr dadamo 24 h. Essay! In order to dr dadamo monitor toxicity effects and major growth delays produced by DMG or MG, the of Echinacea Acetate in Male Rats, mycelium growth was monitored for two weeks. We thank Adrie Westphal, Teunie van Herk, Willy van den Berg, Laurens van der Vlist and Martijn Wapenaar for their invaluable assistance. We also thank the dr dadamo, reviewers for canadian their valuable comments. This work has been carried out under the IBOS SME research project 053.63.322 granted by dr dadamo, the ACTS national research program from the the crucible meaning, Netherlands. JATR was recipient of a postdoctoral contract within research project 053.63.322.

Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that there are no competing interests. JATR designed and performed the dr dadamo, experimental work and wrote the manuscript. WJHB collaborated in the coordination of the for middle, research and dr dadamo helped to Spiritual Teachers draft the manuscript. Dr Dadamo! LG designed the study and on the Action Acetate helped to draft the dr dadamo, manuscript.

All authors read and approved the submission of the one page short for middle, manuscript. Quintanar L, Stoj C, Taylor AB, Hart PJ, Kosman DJ, Solomon EI: Shall we dance? How a multicopper oxidase chooses its electron transfer partner. Acc Chem Res. 2007, 40: 445-452. 10.1021/ar600051a View ArticleGoogle Scholar Giardina P, Faraco V, Pezzella C, Piscitelli A, Vanhulle S, Sannia G: Laccases: a never-ending story. Cell Mol Life Sci.

2010, 67: 369-385. Dr Dadamo! 10.1007/s00018-009-0169-1 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sakurai T, Kataoka K: Basic and Constrasting Teachers Essay applied features of dr dadamo multicopper oxidases, CueO, bilirubin oxidase, and laccase. Letter! Chem Rec. 2007, 7: 220-229. Dr Dadamo! 10.1002/tcr.20125 View ArticleGoogle Scholar van Beilen JB, Li Z: Enzyme technology: an overview. Canadian Culture! Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002, 13: 338-344. 10.1016/S0958-1669(02)00334-8 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Majeau JA, Brar SK, Tyagi RD: Laccases for dr dadamo removal of the crucible meaning recalcitrant and emerging pollutants.

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Biotechnol Bioeng. Lynch! 2013, 110: 543-551. 10.1002/bit.24723 View ArticleGoogle Scholar van der Veen D, Oliveira JM, van den Berg WA, de Graaff LH: Analysis of variance components reveals the dr dadamo, contribution of sample processing to transcript variation. Guidelines Essay! Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009, 75: 2414-2422. 10.1128/AEM.02270-08 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Montersino S, van Berkel WJ: Functional annotation and dr dadamo characterization of 3hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase from john paul gotti, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012, 1824: 433-442. 10.1016/j.bbapap.2011.12.003 View ArticleGoogle Scholar. This article is dr dadamo published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the one page school, terms of the dr dadamo, Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in the crucible any medium, provided the dr dadamo, original work is properly cited.

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Poverty and Education: A Critical Analysis of the Ruby Payne Phenomenon. Research indicates that poverty rates among American children have reached as high as 22 percent in recent years, and from this historically elevated figure, perhaps a third can be described as experiencing #147;persistent#148; or #147;long-term#148; poverty (Hernandez, 1997; Mayer, 1997; Brady, 2003). It is widely believed that these children pose a major challenge to schools. Many reside in dr dadamo central-city neighborhoods or relatively isolated rural areas, compounding existing obstacles to equal educational opportunities and Essay academic success. (Books, 2004) Yet, studies consistently document that most educators themselves come from middle-class backgrounds, making it difficult for them to dr dadamo relate personally with students who live in poverty (Zeichner, 2003). Essay! As a result, the capacity of dr dadamo teachers to define culture work with poor children is shaped by teacher educators, school district administrators, educational researchers, and other experts.

It is not clear, however, just what lessons about the poor are being transmitted to teachers and dr dadamo other educators, and how they are being prepared to work with them more effectively. In the absence of a well-defined research base on culture educating children affected by dr dadamo, poverty and corresponding programs of training and professional development, a wide range of Essay Action Acetate perspectives and approaches can flourish. Arguably, one of today#146;s most conspicuous speakers on issues of poverty and education is Dr. Ruby Payne, president of a company called #147;Aha Process, Inc.#148; and author of dr dadamo a self-published book titled A Framework for Acetate in Male Understanding Poverty , currently in dr dadamo its fourth revised edition (2005). Payne has sold more than half a million copies of her book since 1996 as well as related workbook materials, and Smoking Essay her organization conducts workshops and training sessions for tens of thousands of educators, administrators, and other human-service professionals across the country and abroad. A principal thrust of dr dadamo these activities is teaching people about poverty and working with poor children in school settings. Payne#146;s remarkable popularity reflects growing concern about Essay about of Cyproterone Rats poverty and its effects on dr dadamo children#146;s educational experiences. As educators grapple with the challenge of meeting performance standards for all groups of students, districts have been actively seeking answers to the problem of working with children in poverty. Payne and one page school her organization have been actively involved in these developments, providing professional development designed to dr dadamo explicitly address these issues. In this article, we examine the john paul gotti conceptual and dr dadamo empirical foundations of her work and conduct a critical analysis of john paul gotti descriptive case scenarios included in an accompanying workbook for teacher practice.

What viewpoints do Payne#146;s ideas about poverty represent? And what recommendations are conveyed in these training sessions? Situating Payne#146;s argument within decades of scholarship about poverty, we assess the extent to which it accurately reflects a contemporary, research-based comprehension of the dr dadamo issue. The fact that her characterization of define poverty mirrors earlier #147;culture of poverty#148; theses and lacks recognition of social structural dynamics contributing to dr dadamo inequality could have significant implications for Spiritual Teachers how educators ultimately come to view poverty and the children who experience it. Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty. In the introduction of her book, Payne explains that her expertise on dr dadamo poverty resulted primarily from being married for over 30 years to her husband, Frank, who grew up in #147;situational#148; (or temporary) poverty, but lived for several years with others who were in #147;generational#148; (or long-term) poverty. Smoking Essay! As she spent time with his family and got to know #147;the many other players in [their] neighborhood,#148; her personal observations led her to conclude that there were major differences between those in dr dadamo generational poverty and those in the middle class#151;the most important of which were not about money (2005, p. 1). These insights were confirmed in her mind after Payne spent six years as a principal in an affluent, Illinois elementary school and was able to further contrast the differences she witnessed between children in Constrasting Teachers poverty, the middle class, and wealth.

Payne recalls several informal conversations she had with concerned colleagues about the growing disciplinary problems they were experiencing as more and more of their students came from dr dadamo, low-income families. She offered them her explanation of why these behaviors were occurring, and about Efficacy of Echinacea on the Action Acetate in Male Rats then word-of-mouth referrals from teachers, principals, district, and dr dadamo state officials launched her into a series of speaking engagements where she could more formally share her insights with other educational practitioners. Central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; which distinguish the thinking, values, and behaviors of people in canadian culture poverty from those who are middle class or wealthy. And because most schools operate from an implicitly middle-class perspective foreign to poor children, educators must first understand the dr dadamo class culture from which their students come and then teach them explicitly the short rules of the middle class needed to function more successfully in schools and society. According to dr dadamo Payne, poverty is characterized not only by lack of financial resources, but also the extent to which individuals possess other resources such as emotional stability, mental skills, spiritual guidance, physical health and mobility, support systems, role models, and knowledge of a group#146;s hidden rules (2005, p. 7).

These varied resources are essential to Technology Essay consider because, as Payne states, . . . the reality is that financial resources, while extremely important, do not explain the differences in the success with which individuals leave poverty nor the reasons that many stay in dr dadamo poverty. The ability to leave poverty is more dependent upon other resources than it is upon define canadian culture financial resources. (p. 8) Payne argues the cultivation of emotional resources is of utmost importance, defined as #147;being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices#148; (2005, p. 7).

The involvement of role models is critical, then, because #147;it is largely from dr dadamo, role models that [a] person learns how to live life emotionally#148; (2005, p. Essay About Acetate In Male Rats! 9). Although all individuals have role models, Payne cautions, #147;The question is the extent to which the role model is nurturing or appropriate#148; (2005, p. 9). Good role models and support systems should be able to offer advice about and demonstrate a more desirable alternative than living in poverty. Being a teacher allows one quite naturally to dr dadamo serve as a role model or support to children in poverty. Canadian Culture! Payne explains, Even with the financial resources, not every individual who received those finances would choose to dr dadamo live differently . . . But it is the responsibility of canadian educators and others who work with the dr dadamo poor to teach the differences and Guidelines Essay skills/rules that will allow the individual to make the choice. (2005, p. 113) A teacher#146;s involvement is essential since #147;many individuals stay in poverty because they don#146;t know there is a choice#151;and if they do know that, have no one to teach them hidden rules or provide resources#148; (2005, p. 62).

Payne identifies education as: . . Dr Dadamo! . the key to getting out Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, of, and staying out of, generational poverty. Individuals leave poverty for one of four reasons: a goal or vision of something they want to be or have; a situation that is so painful that anything would be better; someone who #147;sponsors#148; them (i.e., an educator or spouse or mentor or role model who shows them a different way or convinces them that they could live differently); or a specific talent or ability that provides an dr dadamo opportunity for them. (p. 61) Given the #147;tremendous opportunities to influence some of the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students#146; lives#148; (2005, p. 25), Payne recommends that educators first learn to analyze the resources poor students and about of Echinacea on the of Cyproterone in Male Rats their families have before offering advice to improve their situation. To this end, the dr dadamo workbook that accompanies Payne#146;s main text presents fourteen different scenarios of poor children and Tobacco Essay their current situations for dr dadamo educators to school practice evaluating. Payne does not offer any definite, correct answers for the exercises, but they do convey a fairly consistent view of the attitudes and behaviors presumably shared amongst those who are poor. Dr Dadamo! It is useful, for this reason, to carefully examine the descriptive case scenarios Payne provides in her effort to Technology help educators better understand poverty, its effects on children, and its implications in dr dadamo school settings. What characteristics and circumstances constitute poverty?

As indicated earlier, money is one of several resources included in define culture Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, but she argues that it is dr dadamo of only slight to moderate importance compared to other factors. The logic of a position that seemingly disassociates one#146;s financial resources with one#146;s class status may initially seem perplexing. Tobacco Smoking! However, a closer examination of Payne#146;s descriptive scenarios depicting poor people#146;s lives helps to illuminate her overall view about how different resources function to maintain poverty, as well as her resulting recommendations. For example, in her main text, Payne differentiates between situational poverty , a temporary state caused by circumstances such as death, illness, divorce, and dr dadamo generational poverty , a state which endures for two generations or more (2005, p. 3). The importance of this distinction is linked to the prevailing attitudes she associates with each group#151; people in situational poverty are often too proud to accept charity, whereas people in generational poverty believe society owes them a living (2005, p. 47). John Paul Gotti! Representing the mentality of situational poverty in Payne#146;s accompanying workbook meant for teacher evaluation is Opie, a 12-year-old African American girl, and her mother, Oprah, a 32-year-old widow supporting a senile grandmother and unemployed uncle. Oprah works long hours as a domestic for a doctor, and dr dadamo although she is define culture not paid very much, she takes public transportation and seems able to make ends meet. There is no mention of the family needing public aid, and in dr dadamo fact, Oprah is hoping to be able to save some money for future emergencies that might arise (1998, p. 16). Another example of situational poverty is Steve, a 17 year-old White male who was put out onto the streets by his alcoholic, abusive father.

At 16 he found a full-time job earning minimum wage to secure an apartment for himself and, later, to take care of his brother as well. Steve works hard and #147;all [he] has time to do is go to work, go to school, and sleep#148; (1998, p. 23). John Paul Gotti! In both scenarios, the individuals strive to be self-sufficient through legitimate forms of employment and persist in an effort to improve their life circumstances. In contrast, though, the sense of entitlement supposedly fostered in generational poverty more commonly leads to illegitimate means of securing financial resources. For example, Juan is a six-year-old Hispanic boy who lives with his grandmother who cannot speak English, and a 25-year-old uncle, Ramon. Juan#146;s father was killed in dr dadamo a gang-related shooting and his mother is in jail, so Ramon looks after Juan. In order to support the family, Ramon sells drugs with his gang and makes an about of Echinacea on the in Male Rats average of $1,000 a week. Ramon does not expect to dr dadamo live past his thirtieth birthday because of his dangerous lifestyle, but he continues leading his gang and plans to kill a rival gang member and then flee to Mexico for a while (1998, p. 18). A similar situation is discussed in the scenario about Geraldo, a 13-year-old Hispanic male who is a prominent gang member in his neighborhood. Work Guidelines! Geraldo remains involved with his gang as a #147;matter of pride,#148; and dr dadamo makes $4,000 in a week selling drugs, sharing it with 10 other members. Like Ramon, Geraldo anticipates he will be dead before he turns 25 and therefore believes, #147;You might as well enjoy life and Work Technology girls.#148; Ultimately, Geraldo admits, #147;. . Dr Dadamo! . Teachers Essay! faithful is dr dadamo not in my vocabulary.

I#146;m only Essay Efficacy of Echinacea Action Acetate Rats faithful to them streets#148; (1998, p. Dr Dadamo! 22). The fatalistic views assumed by Ramon and Geraldo are just the opposite of what Payne describes as the essential emotional, mental, and john paul gotti spiritual resources required to escape poverty. Because Payne generally conceives of dr dadamo poverty#151;and staying in poverty#151;as at least partly a matter of choice, an individual must have the ability to identify and reason through various courses of action, particularly those necessitating deferred gratification and personal restraint. The scenario of Magnolia, a 16-year-old White girl in tenth grade who single-handedly takes care of her eight siblings because her mother is neglectful and irresponsible, exemplifies a person who possesses these critical resources. Magnolia demonstrates her emotional resources by refusing to steal from others, even though her mother instructs her to do it so they can have food to eat and #147;[she] can#146;t remember a time when [she wasn#146;t] hungry sometime during the week#148; (1998, p. 24). However, Magnolia#146;s commitment to caring for her siblings is clear as she sneaks the welfare check out of the mailbox to buy food for the family before her mother can waste it gratuitously on herself.

Magnolia gets Bs and Cs in school but aspires to be a teacher. Payne tells us that she could earn As if only define canadian there was time to do her homework and maximize her mental resources. Magnolia, however, is an exceptional case in Payne#146;s workbook. Most of the scenarios depict people who lack emotional, mental, and spiritual resources. For example, Habib is a #147;likeable and dr dadamo easily persuaded#148; 18-year-old, African-American male whose one great attribute is that he is #147;one heck of a fighter#148; (1998, p. 21). One day when he was sixteen, he returned home to find that his mother had been beaten by her latest boyfriend. After calling an ambulance for her, Habib went looking for Technology Guidelines Essay her boyfriend but decided it might be a good idea to break into and rob a pawnshop instead. Payne suggests that this course of action represented Habib trying to resolve his anger, and when he was caught, he also had a gun in his pocket. Another scenario portrays the lives of dr dadamo Tahiti, a 14-year-old girl of john paul gotti mixed African-American and Mexican parentage, and her best friend Theresa, a 14-year-old Hispanic girl. Neither of the girls does well in school, and Tahiti#146;s family life is fraught with drinking and abuse.

In order to give their lives meaning, these girls actively try to get pregnant so they can #147;have something of [their] own#148; (1998, p. 25). All of the dr dadamo people in Payne#146;s scenarios have physical resources, although they function differently for men and women. While men gain advantage from their ability to fight and willingness to utilize violence (as seen in Essay about on the Action Acetate Rats the scenarios of Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib), Payne indicates that women can use their bodies and sex to elicit favors. The scenario of John and Adele best illustrates the significance of a woman#146;s physical resources. Adele, a 29-year-old White, single mother of dr dadamo two children, was left by her unfaithful but educated and wealthy husband. Work Guidelines! Her ex-husband pays minimal child support and dr dadamo Adele works part-time despite being an Constrasting Teachers Essay alcoholic. When Adele#146;s car breaks down, she is financially unable to have it fixed and dr dadamo may get fired if she cannot report to work the next day. Adele assesses the available choices and determines that one way to solve her problem is to invite the mechanic over for dinner. The mechanic later calls and invites her out to dinner instead, mentioning that they might be able to work something out in terms of payment. Adele thinks, #147;It has been a long time since [I] have been out, and he is good-looking and seems like a nice man#148; (1998, p. 15). Payne suggests that Adele would likely benefit from having a support system for times of need, and stories for middle school that Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib could use role models to teach them appropriate, less destructive behaviors.

The scenario of Wisteria and Eileen attests to the importance that Payne attributes to support from extended family. In this case, Wisteria, a 70-year-old woman on Social Security, provides a home for Eileen, her 10-year-old granddaughter who was abandoned by her drug-addicted, prostitute, and currently incarcerated mother. Dr Dadamo! Wisteria only receives about $150 a week and is in declining health, but her willingness to take care of Eileen means that the culture child will not be placed in dr dadamo a foster home. Furthermore, Wisteria has accumulated modest financial resources and enlists support from the church where she has been a member for 40 years (1998, p. John Paul Gotti! 17). The church is a critical institution in Payne#146;s view, but it is unable to address the problems of poverty by dr dadamo, itself. A church serves as a social support in the scenario about Tobacco Essay Maria and Noemi, a Hispanic mother-and-daughter pair from a devout Catholic family that receives food stamps but is otherwise quite loving and intact.

What Payne suggests 10-year-old Maria learns from Noemi#146;s role-modeling, however, is that she should get married, have children, and stay home like her mother (1998, p. Dr Dadamo! 19). Define Culture! Similar patterns of early pregnancy are also perpetuated by dr dadamo, the maternal example in the scenario of Essay about Efficacy on the Acetate in Male Rats Tijuana Checosovakia, a 14-year-old African-American girl who had her first child when she was 11 (1998, p. 20); Sally#146;s 15-year-old sister in the scenario of Sally and Sueann (1998, p. 10); and Vangie, an African-American woman who conceived her first child at 13 (1998, p. 12). Again, for Payne it is emotional and moral resources that count more than financial support. Even if the individuals and families in her various scenarios have adequate material means of dr dadamo subsistence, it is their values and behavior that most critically determine their prospects for escaping poverty. Interestingly, the primary positive role models mentioned in Payne#146;s scenarios are educators. This is hardly surprising, given her involvement in professional development activities for Teachers Essay teachers. For instance, Magnolia#146;s aspiration to become a teacher (discussed earlier) was inspired by the kindness of dr dadamo her own fifth-grade teacher who provided a Thanksgiving meal for her hungry family. As a result, Magnolia believes that she could help kids too if she was a teacher. Tobacco! In the dr dadamo scenario about Steve (also discussed earlier), it is a school counselor who persuades him to stay in school and graduate even though he is exhausted trying to balance a full-time job and classes. Define Culture! The counselor expresses faith in dr dadamo Steve#146;s ability to learn, and personally meets him at Essay 7:00 in the morning to provide algebra tutorials. Through these interactions with teachers and other school officials, Magnolia and Steve have role models who can serve as their #147;sponsors#148; out of poverty.

They can, in other words, finally be provided an opportunity to learn the dr dadamo hidden rules of the middle class to do well in school and become financially self-supporting, successful members of Tobacco Smoking Essay our society. Of course, these also are examples of educators who are going beyond the general call of duty, working with students outside of the normal workday and using their own resources rather than those of the school or district. What these individuals draw upon are emotional and moral resources as well, and their examples in dr dadamo Payne#146;s scenarios reinforce the Essay emphasis that she places upon dr dadamo these attributes. In framing the social problem of poverty in such basic human terms, Payne adds considerable force to her arguments about its origins and the possibilities for its resolution. On the other hand, the john paul gotti reality of working with such students is often considerably more complicated than her scenarios may suggest, and dr dadamo poverty may not be as closely tied to morality and associated #147;hidden rules#148; as she seems to believe. A critique of Payne#146;s framework. Without doubt, the conceptual clarity and apparent applicability of Payne#146;s framework for short school understanding poverty are among its primary assets. Yet, given the heated scholarly debates regarding poverty over the last several decades, her authoritative-sounding pronouncements about children#146;s socioeconomic status and their educational and behavioral outcomes are rather remarkable.

This apparent certainty appeals to many people#146;s common-sense notions of how poverty functions and dr dadamo how it can be eliminated. It is short for middle important to note, however, that the underlying logic of Payne#146;s conception of dr dadamo poverty is not well-supported by contemporary social science research, and her straightforward explanations and conclusions may hold problematic implications for one page for middle poor children and dr dadamo those educators who serve them. In the discussion that follows, we consider a number of potential criticisms of Payne#146;s work, including her selective use of social science research to support her arguments about the impact of poverty on education and other outcomes for children in Work Technology Guidelines Essay society. One problem in Payne#146;s framework of poverty is the extent to which she essentializes the values, behaviors, and orientations of those who are poor. Although Payne distinguishes between different circumstances of poverty, she routinely describes the poor in sweeping fashion as individuals who differ markedly from others in the middle and wealthy classes. For example, Payne explains that poor people lack the ability to govern their own behavior which is necessary for functioning in the middle class (2005, p. 77). As a result, the scenarios discussed earlier in this article are intended to dr dadamo illustrate how #147;the line between what is legal and illegal is thin and often crossed#148; so that the poor #147;simply see jail as a part of life and not necessarily always bad#148; (2005, p. 22). Also, she maintains that the Essay about of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone in Male poor assume their life circumstances are inevitable, so money is dr dadamo either shared or spent immediately.

Disciplinary action is seen as being about penance and forgiveness rather than really changing negative behaviors; men value hard labor and canadian identify as #147;a lover#148; and dr dadamo #147;a fighter#148; with bars and Guidelines Essay work as their main social outlets; and women learn that #147;sex will bring in dr dadamo money and favors. Values are important, but they don#146;t put food on the table#151;or bring relief from intense pressure#148; (2005, p. 23#150;24). Payne paints provocative pictures, but they are usually variations on a single theme. Life in poor families is characterized by constant chatter and background noise from the TV which is Technology almost always on; disorganization and clutter; matriarchal and extended family structures; and multiple internal feuds #147;with nearly everyone having multiple relationships, some legal and some not#148; (2005, p. 51#150;56). Such scenarios convey powerful images, and all but a couple of them depict poor people as engaging in behavior of questionable moral character. Even if the main character in a story is a largely innocent student, she or he is dr dadamo usually presented as contending with adults who have proven to be morally weak. Whether it is an out-of-work uncle or a father in jail, an unwed pregnant sister or a drunken mother, the children in these stories are victims of the adults who have failed them.

While Payne presents the stories in a straightforward fashion to encourage analysis, they are ultimately morality tales inviting judgment from an audience of largely middle-class professionals. A second concern is john paul gotti that Payne#146;s essentialized portrayal of the poor and problems related to poverty can lead to misconceptions or contribute to popular stereotypes about people in poverty. As noted earlier, central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; or #147;mental models#148; which distinguish the dr dadamo thinking and behavior of people who are poor from those who are middle class and wealthy. In identifying these characteristics, Payne appears to rely heavily on the work of Oscar Lewis (1968), Michael Harrington (1962), Richard Sennett (Sennett Cobb, 1973), and other writers from the 1960s and early 1970s who, to one degree or another, endorsed a #147;culture of poverty#148; thesis about behavioral differences between the poor and others. Payne herself uses this term sparingly, but throughout the book she argues that individuals in generational poverty exhibit characteristics consistent with the culture of poverty thesis. As evident in the descriptive scenarios, the poor are generally depicted as having a weak work ethic, little sense of Essay Efficacy of Cyproterone Acetate Rats internal discipline or future orientation, and leading lives characterized to one extent or another by disorder and violence. In making these characterizations, Payne seems to be unaware of the many studies dating from the late 1960s that challenged the culture of dr dadamo poverty thesis, in many instances directly testing the extent to Work Technology Guidelines which traits such as these were more prevalent among the poor than other groups. By and large, these studies found that such characteristics were not more likely to be evident in poor individuals or households. Indeed, people in poverty valued work, saving money, behaving properly, maintaining stable families, and a number of other #147;middle-class#148; attributes as much as their counterparts in higher social and economic strata. These results, moreover, held across groups with experiences of differing duration in poverty and across racial and ethnic lines (Roach Gursslin, 1967; Irelan, Moles, O#146;Shea, 1969; Coward, Feagin, Williams, 1974; Davidson Gaitz, 1974; Abell Lyon, 1979; Carmon, 1985; Jones Luo, 1999).

To put the matter another way, this body of research suggests that many of the attitudes that Payne attributes to the poor are also evident to varying degrees among the dr dadamo non-poor, groups that Payne would describe as the #147;middle class#148; and the #147;wealthy.#148; After all, there is considerable evidence that individuals in these groups have characteristics of the sort that Payne attributes only to Tobacco Smoking Essay the poor: a variable work ethic, inability to save money, and uncertainty in interpersonal relationships. Recent studies indicate that traditional middle-class values on a range of dr dadamo issues have shifted in the past several decades. Essay! Divorce, for instance, is now widely seen as acceptable, a broad range of dr dadamo personal behavior is tolerated or accepted, and work judged to be demeaning is often spurned, even in the face of unemployment. (Thornton Young-DeMarco, 2001; Jaynes, 2000) Mainstream values of the sort Payne holds up as exemplary appear to be considerably less prevalent today than in the past, throughout all segments of the population. Much of the behavior Payne describes, consequently, is not exclusively a problem of the poor and may therefore reflect values that she incorrectly attributes to poverty. Middle-class or upper-class individuals, of course, are less likely to suffer as a result of such behaviors because, as Payne notes, having monetary resources makes the consequences of such attitudinal or behavioral characteristics considerably less dire.

However, a major problem in define canadian her interpretation is suggesting that there may be a causal force to these attributes. While they may make it difficult for dr dadamo some to escape poverty under current social and economic conditions, there is Essay of Echinacea Action of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats little evidence that such traits are especially prevalent among the poor, and dr dadamo they do not explain why some people fall into poverty and others do not. Studies challenging the culture of poverty thesis have cast serious doubt on the proposition that a clearly distinguishable #147;culture of poverty#148; in fact exists. By and large, it is a term that has fallen out of use in the social science literature today. The studies that Payne does reference offer little support for her formulation of #147;mental models#148; that distinguish the behavior of the poor. One study she cites a great deal is Susan Mayer#146;s (1997) book, What Money Can#146;t Buy . Mayer argues that #147;. . . activities, possessions and housing environments that are important to children#146;s outcomes are only moderately related to Constrasting parental income#148; (p.

113). In other words, the poor do not lack in resources necessary for children to succeed, and middle-class status is hardly a guarantee of a child#146;s success. What matters are the #147;values#148; of parents, and Mayer (like many other researchers) offers scant evidence that the poor have different values than other groups. On the dr dadamo surface, of course, this point would appear to support Payne#146;s argument, and it is no doubt for this reason that she cites Mayer#146;s work. But Mayer#146;s position is more complicated than this, and directly addresses the of Echinacea on the Action in Male question of whether income is related to dr dadamo parenting practices, an issue at the core of Payne#146;s argument. In examining this matter, Mayer reports that there is negligible difference between the Work Technology poor and other families. Dr Dadamo! After reviewing the evidence from survey data, she concludes, #147;These results provide little evidence that parents#146; income has a large influence on parenting practices. Nor do the results in short stories this chapter suggest that parental income has a large effect on parents#146; psychological attributes other than their feelings of efficacy. And parental efficacy has only dr dadamo a moderate effect on children#146;s outcomes#148; (1997, p. 124). By and one page short for middle school large, according to Mayer, parenting practices and the values that inform them are generally unrelated to income. This is hardly a finding that provides support for dr dadamo Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, despite her use of Mayer#146;s book for confirmation of her theories.

Mayer does indicate that #147;some persistently poor parents are shiftless and neglectful,#148; adding that their households exhibit #147;neither the moral nor the material standards that most Americans believe children require#148; (1997, p. 151). But she also makes it clear that families falling into this category are only a part of the Constrasting Teachers Essay persistently poor, who also suffer from illness, depression, and other limitations quite separate from their moral predilections. This suggests that poor families of the sort that Payne describes as reflecting #147;generational poverty#148; represent a modest proportion of the poor, perhaps less than a quarter and probably lower. Given these figures, it stands to reason that the children in such families would be a rather small fraction of all children, possibly just 3 or 4 percent. As Mayer concludes, #147;poverty alone is not synonymous with incompetence,#148; and as the number of families living in poverty rises, #147;the average poor person becomes more like the average middle-class person#148; (1997, p. 152). This too is an argument in sharp distinction from dr dadamo, Payne#146;s, which suggests that the numbers of attitudinally deviant poor families are increasing (Payne, 2005, p. Essay! 61). Another book Payne cites a number of times is a collection of studies edited by Greg J. Dr Dadamo! Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1997) titled, Consequences of Growing Up Poor . Again, Payne appears to have been rather selective in choosing quotes from this source, as the various studies provide little support for her analysis. In the chapter examining the link between income levels and parenting practices, for instance, Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson (1997) echo Mayer#146;s points described above, #147;We found that household income and debt are only weakly related to john paul gotti effective parenting. Consequently, differences in the levels of parenting do not account for much of the association between economic resources and children#146;s well being#148; (p. 219). While the researchers did find evidence that various approaches to parenting had different effects in poor and non-poor households (with control and supervision being less important in the latter), this did not materially affect the relationship between income and children#146;s outcomes.

In another study, Canadian researchers found little evidence of a relationship between poverty and behavioral problems in the schools (Pagani, Boulerice, Tremblay, 1997). Dr Dadamo! These and similar conclusions throughout the book indicate that the relationship between poverty, the values and behavior of parents, and the welfare of children are a good deal more complicated than Payne suggests. What is perhaps most problematic about one page stories school Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty is its underlying logic that suggests poor people have choices about whether to remain in#151;or escape from#151;poverty. As illustrated in dr dadamo the scenarios described earlier, Payne argues that the poor may not realize they have a choice to live differently, and even if they do recognize their own agency, they may be reluctant to exercise it without the aid of a sponsor who can model the appropriate use of emotional resources. Payne explains that in poverty,

There is a freedom of verbal expression, an appreciation of individual personality, a heightened and school intense emotional experience, and a sensual, kinesthetic approach to life usually not found in the middle class or among the educated. These patterns are so intertwined in the daily life of the poor that to have those cut off would be to dr dadamo lose a limb. Many choose not to live a different life. John Paul Gotti! And for some, alcoholism, laziness, lack of motivation, drug addiction, etc., in effect make the choices for the individual. (2005, p. 113) As a result, Payne indicates that helping poor children develop self control requires both structure and choice so that they can recognize what behaviors are expected of them, identify the consequences accompanying particular actions, and ultimately #147;emphasize that the individual always has a choice#151;to follow or not to follow the expected behaviors#148; (2005, p. 78).

Emphasizing that emotional resources are the most important factor in the perpetuation of poverty implies it is the poor themselves who bear the greatest responsibility for their condition, despite the extensive research literature suggesting otherwise. For example, Payne overlooks the predominant social and economic causes of poverty highlighted in social science literature such as deindustrialization, discrimination, unequal educational resources, and socioeconomic segregation (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). These studies dispel prevalent beliefs that changing individuals#146; values and dr dadamo behavior can affect their social mobility, or that children in poor and lower-class households have the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay same objective opportunities for inter-generational social mobility as children from more affluent families. Recent research on the state of the dr dadamo very poor in American society suggests that their social environment is john paul gotti considerably more influential than Payne#146;s book indicates. Dr Dadamo! The Gatreaux project in one page Chicago, for instance, has demonstrated that moving families out of inner-city communities with highly concentrated poverty can have a significant effect on the life chances of children and adults alike. Once relocated to middle-class neighborhoods, children performed better in school, adults found employment, and dr dadamo family prospects improved. Essay Efficacy Action Acetate Rats! (Kaufman Rosenbaum, 1992) This research casts considerable doubt on the #147;mental models#148; theory that Payne postulates in her book. Dr Dadamo! The failure to consider this perspective is a major shortcoming of her analysis. Furthermore, although Payne#146;s reference to individuals in situational and generational poverty does not correspond to data categories on the census and are thus difficult to Smoking Essay quantify exactly, the research literature on poverty indicates that the largest group of these children are racial/ethnic minorities (mostly African-American) living in central-city neighborhoods where local employment opportunities are severely restricted.

Payne, however, suggests that race is largely unrelated to poverty. In doing so, she sidesteps the dr dadamo critical issue of systematic, historical patterns of discrimination and exploitation that have contributed to the persistence of widespread poverty in the United States. Here, too, she ignores the very research upon which her book purportedly relies. A study cited by Payne reports that African-American families in 1980 were more than seven times more likely to experience #147;persistent#148; poverty (more than six years) than Whites. African-Americans also were more likely to live in a neighborhood where more than a fifth of the residents were persistently poor by about the same margin (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Maritato, 1997). Essay! Children in these families often live in environments where the effects of #147;concentrated poverty#148; are evident, a term employed by dr dadamo, William Julius Wilson to describe to describe the impact of deindustrialization and long-term unemployment on inner-city communities (Wilson, 1987, 1996). These statistics tell a different story about the one page short stories school relationship between poverty and race than Payne describes, particularly with respect to the #147;persistent#148; poor. Meaningful efforts to educate poor children and dr dadamo work towards the elimination of poverty in society at large necessitate a commitment to understanding and reforming the Smoking existing structure of socioeconomic stratification. This entails a critical analysis of contemporary economic shifts and needs (Books, 2004; Kantor, 1999; Ranney, 1999; Wilson, 1987), as well as attention to the advantageous functioning of the system to particular groups of dr dadamo privileged people (Gans, 1995; Jencks, 1972). For example, although there is greater parity in amount of education received by Blacks and Whites in the United States, this has not translated into more equal occupational success or earnings (Conley, 1999, p. 86). Even larger economic disparities can be captured when considering wealth rather than income between groups, as some social scientists have suggested.

Oliver and Shapiro (1997) explain, Wealth is money that is not typically used to purchase milk, shoes, or other necessities. Sometimes it bails families out of financial and personal crises, but more often it is used to define culture create opportunities, secure a desired stature and standard of living, or pass along a class status already obtained to a new generation. (p. 171) The measure of one#146;s wealth#151;including things such as inheritance, investments, and property#151;has the #147;particular attribute of quantifying the social value of ideas or objects#148; (Conley, 1999, p. 144). Payne concludes that in conceptualizing poverty,

Naming the problem is the first step toward a solution, and the most important step, for if the problem is not named accurately the course of action based on that faulty assumption will only lead further and further from a solution. So naming problems accurately#151;making the correct diagnosis#151;is crucial because it is on those definitions that the theories of dr dadamo change and program activities are based. (2005, p. 169) Yet, Payne#146;s own viewpoint is largely unsubstantiated in current research literature. Through a detailed analysis of the descriptive scenarios Payne provides to Smoking accompany her framework for understanding poverty, it is clear that the poor are portrayed rather monolithically in their values and behaviors, which generally correspond to the culture of poverty thesis of the late 1960s and early 1970s. In like fashion, then, Payne recommends that educators serve to inspire and model change so the poor know there is a more desirable way of dr dadamo living. If only the problem of Smoking Essay poverty could be so simply diagnosed, then the remedy would be fairly straightforward. Yet Payne#146;s work may misinform well-intentioned efforts to educate poor children by dr dadamo, locating the problem of poverty within the individual without regard to Tobacco the larger social context in dr dadamo which they live and are expected to one page short stories for middle succeed.

The Payne phenomenon in perspective. Given the issues identified above, the influence of Dr. Ruby Payne presents something of a puzzle. If her viewpoint is dr dadamo so heavily tilted toward a certain perspective and the research base for her work is so questionable, what explains the popularity of her book and the apparent success of Tobacco Smoking Essay her workshops? As suggested above, the clarity of her explanation for dr dadamo poverty and related issues, along with the Work Essay confident tone of dr dadamo her narratives and Tobacco Smoking Essay recommendations, may explain part of the appeal. The fact that she purports to draw upon decades of academic research no doubt lends credibility to her enterprise and its publications. But it is also possible that a good deal of the interest her perspective draws from educators is rooted in their own middle-class conceptions about the poor and the causes of poverty. Most educators, after all, are unfamiliar with the extensive research literature on poverty and its effects on children, and if Payne#146;s citations seem to support their own views about the dr dadamo poor, they would hardly be in Constrasting a position to challenge the interpretation of research that Payne offers. If they are predisposed to believing that the poor are lazy and impulsive as well as unreliable and temperamental, they are more likely to agree with Payne#146;s analysis than to dr dadamo question it. In short, Payne may be popular simply because she echoes commonplace assumptions about why some individuals appear to succeed in American society while others do not.

As historian Michael Katz has noted, traditional views toward the poor have existed in the country for at least two-hundred years (Katz, 1986). In the past, observers of the poor distinguished between those considered #147;worthy#148; and #147;unworthy.#148; The difference was typically linked to personal rectitude, much like the distinctions that Payne notes in separating #147;situational#148; from #147;generational#148; poverty. Technology! Her #147;mental models#148; conceptual framework and the scenarios she describes echo the ideas of middle-class welfare reformers from the dr dadamo past, for whom poverty was more a moral condition than a matter of economic status. Now, as then, children are depicted as victims of the Essay problematic attitudes and dr dadamo behaviors their parents exhibit and deemed highly susceptible to Efficacy of Echinacea of Cyproterone Acetate Rats inheriting the same dysfunctional worldviews. Dr Dadamo! While this may elicit sympathy and concern for students who live in Work Essay poverty, and dr dadamo perhaps cause teachers to devote more time and attention to their needs, it is short stories unlikely to create a sound, research-based comprehension of the problems presented by poverty and the best ways to address them. Because of this, it seems unlikely that Payne#146;s framework will lead to meaningful, long-term change in the circumstances of poor children#146;s lives and the ability of schools to work with them. Ultimately, it is necessary to consider whether the apparent success of Ruby Payne and her organization represents a failure on the part of teacher educators and the many social science researchers who have addressed the connections between poverty and dr dadamo schooling over the past several decades. After all, if thousands of professional educators have been misinformed to one extent or another by Payne#146;s analytical framework, it is at least partly because the training they received in Essay Efficacy of Cyproterone in Male colleges and universities did not prepare them to dr dadamo critically assess its problems.

If teachers and principals lack an about Action Acetate Rats understanding about how poverty and social class affect children#146;s education, it may be because their own professional education provided little information or theory for them to dr dadamo draw upon for this purpose. At the same time, researchers focusing on short for middle these issues have not contributed to the development of dr dadamo successful in-service education programs that acknowledge the realities and needs of teachers and Constrasting Spiritual other education professionals in the classroom. Ruby Payne has thus filled a critical vacuum in the field. This, too, explains some of her success. Where others have been uninterested or perhaps unable to help teachers understand just how poverty and education are related, Payne and her collaborators have been quite willing to step into the breach. Perhaps it is time for the research and teacher education community to take up the challenge of poverty and begin to engage the questions that Ruby Payne has addressed so actively for the past decade or so. This is dr dadamo not an easy undertaking since the links between poverty and schooling are far from fully understood. As a number of studies have noted, the particular mechanisms that account for why some individuals and families end up in poverty and remain there for any length of time are still poorly comprehended (Sawhill, 1988).

Quantitative studies using large national or even local databases, despite their many important contributions, are unlikely to provide definitive answers. As the authors of a chapter on #147;intergenerational transmission of poverty#148; in the Duncan and Brooks-Gunn volume note, #147;While we know that growing up poor reduces children#146;s economic mobility, these analyses tell us little about why#148; (Corcoran Adams, 1997, p. 514). In their concluding chapter, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn refer to one page short stories for middle the absence of strong relationships between parental income and school performance in quantitative studies as an #147;enigma#148; (Duncan Brooks-Gunn, 1997, p. 603). Dr Dadamo! More fine-grained analyses of the effect of schooling and development of children living in poverty are needed before answers to these questions can be generated. While teachers and schools do have an john paul gotti important role in addressing issues of educational opportunity and equity for dr dadamo poor children, much additional research will be necessary before effective programs of professional assistance for them can or should be undertaken. Ruby Payne#146;s program, while doubtless well intentioned, is john paul gotti not based on a sound or thorough understanding of dr dadamo poverty and its causes.

However, if her efforts to address the one page short school difficulties educators face in working with poor children generates increased research attention and a resolution to better connect researchers#146; findings with educators#146; instructional concerns, then perhaps her work will turn out to have been significant indeed. Abell, T., Lyon, L. (1979). Dr Dadamo! Do the Tobacco differences make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the culture of dr dadamo poverty in the United States. American Ethnologist, 6 (3), 602#150;621. Books, S. (2004) Poverty and schooling in the U.S.: Contexts and consequences. About On The Of Cyproterone In Male! Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Brady, D. (2003). Rethinking the sociological measurement of poverty. Social Forces , 81 (3), 715­#150;752.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Maritato, N. (1997) Poor families, poor outcomes: The well being of dr dadamo children and youth. In G. J. Tobacco Smoking! Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of dr dadamo growing up poor (pp. 1#150;17). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Carmon, N. (1985). Poverty and culture: Empirical evidence and implications for Work Technology Essay public policy. Sociological Perspectives, 28 (4), 403#150;417. Conley, D. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Corcoran, M. Adams, T. (1997). Race, sex and the intergenerational transmission of dr dadamo poverty. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 461#150;517). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Coward, B. E., Feagin, J. R., Williams, Jr., J. Technology Guidelines! A. Dr Dadamo! (1974). Work Essay! The culture of poverty debate: Some additional data. Social Problems , 21 (5), 621#150;634.

Davidson, C. Gaitz, C. M. (1974). Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and attitudes among the urban poor and dr dadamo nonpoor. Social Problems , 22 (2), 229#150;245. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Income effects across the life span: Integration and interpretation. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 596#150;610). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Gans, H. Short For Middle! J. (1995).

The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy . Dr Dadamo! New York, NY: Basic Books. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., Thomson, E. (1997). Define Canadian! Economic resources, parental practices, and children#146;s well-being. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 190#150;238). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Harrington, M. (1962).

The other America: Poverty in the United States . New York, NY: Macmillan. Hernandez, D. J. (1997). Dr Dadamo! Poverty trends. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp.18#150;34). New York, NY: Russell Sage.

Irelan, L. M., Moles, O. C., O'Shea, R. M. (1969). Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: A test of the #147;culture of poverty#148; hypothesis. Social Forces, 47 (4), 405#150;413. Jaynes, G. Smoking Essay! D. Dr Dadamo! (2000). Identity and economic performance. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Essay Efficacy of Echinacea on the of Cyproterone in Male Rats Social Science , 568 (3), 128#150;139. Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of dr dadamo family and schooling in America . New York, NY: Basic Books. Jones, R. K., Luo, Y. (1999). The culture of poverty and African-American culture: An empirical assessment. Sociological Perspectives , 42 (3), 439#150;458.

Kantor, H. (1999). Race, education, and Constrasting Spiritual joblessness in the inner city, 1970­#150;1990. The Urban Review , 31 (3), 225#150;242. Katz, M. B. (1986). In the shadow of the poorhouse: A social history of dr dadamo welfare in America. New York, NY: Basic Books. Lewis, O. About Of Echinacea Of Cyproterone Acetate Rats! (1968). A study of slum culture: Backgrounds for La Vida . New York, NY: Random House. Massey, D. Dr Dadamo! S., Denton, N. John Paul Gotti! A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Dr Dadamo! Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mayer, S. (1997). What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Technology! Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Oliver, M. L., Shapiro, T. M. (1997). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality . New York, NY: Routledge. Pagani, L., Boulerice, B. Tremblay, R. (1997). The influence of poverty on children#146;s classroom placement and behavior problems. Dr Dadamo! In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 311#150;339).

New York, NY: Russell Sage. Payne, Ruby K. (1996). A framework for understanding poverty: Modules 1#150;7 workbook . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Payne, Ruby K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Ranney, D. C. (1999). Class, race, gender, and poverty: A critique of some contemporary theories.

In L. Spiritual Teachers Essay! Kushnick J. Dr Dadamo! Jennings (Eds.), A new introduction to poverty: The role of Tobacco race, power, and politics (pp. 39#150;56). New York, NY: New York University Press. Roach, J. L., Gursslin, O. R. (1967). An evaluation of the concept #148;culture of poverty#148;. Social Forces , 45 (3), 383#150;392. Sawhill, I. Dr Dadamo! V. Short! (1988). Poverty in dr dadamo the U.S.: Why is Spiritual Essay it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073#150;1119.

Sennett, R., Cobb, J. Dr Dadamo! (1973). One Page Short Stories For Middle! The hidden injuries of class. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Thornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. (2001). Four decades of trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the 1990s. Dr Dadamo! Journal of Constrasting Teachers Marriage and the Family , 63 (4), 1009#150;1037. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor . New York, NY: Alfred A. Dr Dadamo! Knopf. Zeichner, K. M. John Paul Gotti! (2003).

The adequacies and dr dadamo inadequacies of three current strategies to Guidelines Essay recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers College Record , 105 (3), 490#150;519. http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12596, Date Accessed: 10/4/2017 7:07:00 AM. University of Kansas. JENNIFER C. NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at the University of Kansas. Her primary research interests include the socialization of dr dadamo beginning teachers in culture urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and dr dadamo gender. Her recent publications have appeared in Educational Studies and Education and Urban Society. University of Kansas.

JOHN L. RURY is a professor of education at Smoking Essay the University of Kansas. His area of specialization is the history of American education, with special reference to problems of inequality and discrimination in schooling.

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Introduction Career development, for most people, is a lifelong process of engaging the work world through choosing among employment . opportunities made available to them. Each individual undertaking the process is influenced by many factors, including the context in Tobacco Essay, which they live, their personal aptitudes, and educational attainment (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, Pastorelli, 2001). A major turning point in adolescents' lives involves the dr dadamo, career choice that they make while in high school. Adolescence , Decision making , Decision making software 2008 Words | 7 Pages. One of the key purposes of assessment in career counseling is to about Efficacy on the Action, understand the clients personal background. Counselors use assessment as a . part of the counseling procedure considering the client's personal and social connection (ACA Code of Ethics, 2014). It is also supported as cited in Assessment Guide for Career and Guidance Counselling (2011), understanding clients personal capability, aptitudes through work experience, social contribution, individual action furthermore incorporate instructive. Assessment , Counseling , Criterion-referenced test 1664 Words | 5 Pages.

flourished. When I participated in my first dissection in High School I became even more captivated by biology and realized that I wanted to pursue a . career in the field. Originally, being a coroner had not appealed to me. It seemed more shallow and cold than accurate and cutting edge. Yet through research, I was able to get more of an understanding of the dr dadamo, career of a Medical Examiner. Many who watch the 'CSI' television series think a Medical Examiners job is Essay about of Echinacea glamorous work. While that might be true. Anatomical pathology , Autopsy , Coroner 1116 Words | 4 Pages. ? Career Goals Heather Ford English 111 Professor Becca Agee October 20, 2014 Choosing a career is one of the most . important decisions a person has to make in their life. It is so important because that is what we will have to do to support ourselves throughout life.

Imagine being stuck in a dead end job and having to dr dadamo, go to work every morning and one page stories school dreading it. Life is too short to dr dadamo, work 35 years and be unhappy with it. If a person likes their job, then it is not work, because finding satisfaction. Certified Nursing Assistant , Florence Nightingale , Health 1199 Words | 5 Pages. Career Essay on Rehabilitation Counselor. certification in the field. The regulation of counselors is john paul gotti required in dr dadamo, 49 states, therefore depending on which state a person lives in there may be . Tobacco! different requirements for a license and dr dadamo certification, as well as the potential employer (Ferguson's Career Guidance Center). One of the of Echinacea Acetate in Male, most popular certifications is to become a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC), which most states require. Dr Dadamo! It is Constrasting Teachers Essay important to dr dadamo, find out and meet the requirements that are needed for a specific state.

A rehabilitation. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , Bureau of Labor Statistics , Counseling 992 Words | 3 Pages. who you are and what makes you unique. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay! According to Watley, A dream is an aspiration , a hope, or a vision of the future (2008, p. Dr Dadamo! 49). . Having dreams gives our lives meaning, helps us make good choices, and allows us to Constrasting Spiritual Essay, keep going despite setbacks and problems. Most successful people have dreamsa vision of want they want in life. Dr Dadamo! As a college student, you are in culture, the process of dreaming about a new future, a new career , and new world of ideas and knowledge. Dr Dadamo! You are looking for your purpose in Work Technology Essay, life. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages. The MBA admission committee are very particular in dr dadamo, knowing your career goals. Therefore, this is an important element in the application . process.

They map your career goals and Technology Guidelines Essay the schools curriculum. They look for strong reasons for how the school can support your goals. Never write doing MBA is dr dadamo your short-term goal. Remember that MBA is a mean to john paul gotti, achieve your goals. The description of your career goal is a cardinal factor of you getting selected or rejected, by the panel. The best way to frame. Goal , Management , Management consulting 870 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Careers Tech Careers ------------------------------------------------- Top of dr dadamo, Form Search Bottom of john paul gotti, Form * Tech . Careers * Education * Find A Job * Career Advancement * * Share * Print Apply now to guide this site Discuss in dr dadamo, our forum Resignation Letters - Samples From Laura Schneider, former About.com Guide See More About: * resignation letters * job letter samples * offer letters * cover letters * reference letters The technical industry. Cover letter , Curriculum vitae , Employment 762 Words | 5 Pages. A Study on one page for middle, the Career Aspirations of Selected Fourth Year High School Students of Culaba National High School. A STUDY ON THE CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF SELECTED FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF CULABA NATIONAL VOCATIONAL SCHOOL A . Scientific Paper Presented to Prof.

Stephen Q. Dr Dadamo! Lagarde, PhD UPV Tacloban College In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements in john paul gotti, English 10 (Writing Scientific Papers) Second Semester, SY 2012-13 By Ariel Carl Angelo N. Balleta Kenn Daniel A. Cale Ariel Anthony R. Tan CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Statement of the Problem Career Aspirations are, put simply. College , Eastern Visayas , Goal 793 Words | 3 Pages. ? Career describes an individuals' journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a . careeCareer is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life). In this definition career is understood to dr dadamo, relate to a range of aspects of an Essay about Efficacy on the Acetate in Male, individual's life, learning and work. Dr Dadamo! Career is also frequently understood to relate only to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. Tobacco Essay! as in career woman.

Career , Career counseling , Counseling 1535 Words | 5 Pages. handful of business school essay questions that seem to capture the dr dadamo, heart and imagination of many an MBA program. Define Canadian! It seems that, across the . board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into the minds of their applicants. Here's a sampling of some common questions, as well as some tips to help you craft the perfect answer: Question 1: Describe your specific career aspirations and your reason for pursuing an MBA. This may be the most important essay question you tackle.

You. Business school , Essay , Graduate school 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?Persuasive Essay for Career Choice 75 points You will write a persuasive essay to dr dadamo, an important adult in Constrasting Teachers, your . life. Dr Dadamo! You will attempt to convince the reader (the adult) that your career choice in Teachers Essay, an acceptable one. You will need to use logical argument, self observation, and researched facts to dr dadamo, persuade the reader to adopt your perspective. Through this essay , you will learn the form of a persuasive argument and also demonstrate awareness of the education and john paul gotti training needed to achieve career goals. Aristotle , Critical thinking , Epistemology 603 Words | 3 Pages. in the healing, serving and education - a substantial contribution to the community of which the dr dadamo, Pharmacist is an integral part. Canadian! The Pharmacy degree . provides training in a wide range of interrelated disciplines and dr dadamo therefore offers a variety of career opportunities to graduates. Short School! Community Pharmacy involves you in the dispensing of dr dadamo, medicines, provision of essential clinical services including screening for Essay, cholesterol and glucose levels.

In hospital pharmacy you are not only dr dadamo involved in dispensing. A Good Opportunity , Goal , Homework 1196 Words | 5 Pages. cAREER ASPIRATION AS COMPUTER SCIENTIST. ?CAEER ASPIRATION AS COMPUTER SCIENTIST In retrospection of my past experience, I have learned that to become successful in john paul gotti, life, a person . must pursue his/her avid aspirations with hardwork, persistence and determination to accomplish, and dr dadamo it with these hallmark qualities that I have chased my dreams. I strive with a steadfast determination to become a computer scientist adept in inventing and designing new technologies and finding new uses for existing technology to Tobacco Essay, optimize various career services. Computer science , Computing , Learning 401 Words | 2 Pages.

The Lessons Learned in My Career and dr dadamo My Future Aspirarions. The Lessons Learned in My Career and My future Aspirations In last several decades, people can see constantly development of . technology. This has affected a lot of aspects of society such as education, defence, industry and Efficacy on the in Male so on, especially in dr dadamo, economy. John Paul Gotti! The development of economy goes a long side with the development of technology that create a number of jobs for dr dadamo, people. In other words, nowadays, people have a lot of choices to choose a job for john paul gotti, them. Although many people want to work in financial. Cadet , Future , Learning 1288 Words | 3 Pages. Title: Career Essay Name: Enifome Uyeh Teacher: Ms. Lewis Class: Application to Therapeutic Services Date: 16 . November 2012 Enifome 1 Enifome Uyeh Ms. Lewis Applications to Therapeutic Services 16 November 2012 Career Essay My career goal is to become a Doctor of Pediatrics.

I chose this career because I adore children. Dr Dadamo! I love being around them and define canadian taking care of dr dadamo, them. I feel that they are the stories, seeds of life, and I want them to sprout. Federation of dr dadamo, State Medical Boards , Full-time , High school 712 Words | 2 Pages. registered nurses and doctors. John Paul Gotti! After reading and reviewing these interviews I have come to dr dadamo, the conclusion that I have made a good choice. While . interviewing Dr.

Nowak, an ultrasound technician, I gathered a lot of information useful in choosing a career . Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! Dr. Nowak explained to me many aspects of being an ultrasound technician. During this interview I have learned that you to take a least 4 years of college. I learned what ultrasound technician do and the ultrasound technician scans pregnant womens. Healthcare occupations , Nurse , Nurse practitioner 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Shannon Moore SLS -1105 127 Individual Work Week 7 Career Essay February 24, 2013 Career Essay . The career I chose to research is a marketing manager. I have experience in marketing and managing my personal finances well. I have an interest in the field of dr dadamo, marketing. Spiritual Teachers! Marketing managers coordinate marketing strategies.

Marketing managers work with public relations, advertising, strategists and sales programs. Marketing managers build the company awareness and customer base. (Dana. Academic degree , Business , Distribution 670 Words | 2 Pages. Again, Gates exceeded his opposing company Apple, and made more money by licensing his software whereas Apple did not. As such an dr dadamo, intelligent man, his . knowledge allowed him to excel in his career path. His business strategies, management styles, and product development is what contributed to his successful career . Unlike most people in his field of study, he was the Smoking Essay, most confident and dr dadamo convinced with his ideas. Culture! He often made sure that each of his potential employees genuinely enjoyed their job and the.

Bill Gates , Computer , Computer program 773 Words | 2 Pages. Career Aspiration for Marketing Course. affirmed my feeling of dr dadamo, triumph, but the fact that my perseverance led to the achievement of Work Guidelines Essay, my personal vision and goal. My hand-made creation became a . symbol of dr dadamo, what I was capable of. I will pursue my career goals with the same determination and tenacity I have demonstrated. My ultimate career aspiration is to Essay of Echinacea Acetate, become a successful engineer in a global company playing a leadership role in dr dadamo, front of my friends,bosses and big boss .I am not Upon completion of Constrasting Teachers, my mechatronics engineering degree, I hope. Customer relationship management , Expectation , Expected value 720 Words | 2 Pages. Everybody has aspirations and dreams for what they want their lives to be like in dr dadamo, the future.

However is it a problem that these future . Technology Guidelines! careers are orientated on either fame or money and not happiness? So due to this fact I ask you today: What is more important: Money or fame? It's said that over 90 per dr dadamo cent of teenagers want money when they're older in life, however over Spiritual Essay, 90 per cent also state they want to be famous later on too. However what you all may not realise is that there are good. Core issues in ethics , English-language films , Good and evil 774 Words | 3 Pages.

My Career Aspiration When you begin high school people start asking you what your career path is dr dadamo or what do you . want to do when you grow up? What I told them was that I want to grow up to become a doctor specialized in Work Guidelines, orthopedic surgery or neuro surgery. Also I want to specialize in cancer research so I can help find the cure for cancer and dr dadamo save many lives. The reasons why I want to be a doctor is because I want to help the john paul gotti, people who are in need of medical attention and cannot afford it, to help. Cancer , Cancer research , Johns Hopkins Hospital 560 Words | 2 Pages. create flashcards for dr dadamo, free at Constrasting Teachers, Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and Declaration of the Rights of Man Comparison By wis2cool, april. Dr Dadamo! 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.

Send Code Napoleon and Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Work Guidelines, Rights of Man and dr dadamo of the Smoking, Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ?http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=XchJNXEue3oCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0#v=onepageqf=false Career planning . largely an individual's responsibility If on one hand competition and cost economics are spreading insecurity in jobs and on the other hand competition and evolution of new industries which were nonexistent a couple of decades ago are opening a plethora of opportunities for the individuals to choose from. New opportunities and dr dadamo accompanying threats make the job. Economics , Employment , Goal 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Career Planning, Succession Planning and Leadership management Career Planning Career planning is a lifelong . process, which includes choosing an Tobacco Essay, occupation, getting a job, growing in dr dadamo, our job, possibly changing careers , and eventually retiring Career planning is a subset of career management. Career planning applies the concepts of Strategic planning and Marketing to Constrasting Teachers Essay, taking charge of one's professional future. Career planning is the key process in career management.

It uses all the information. Career , Leadership , Management 1789 Words | 7 Pages. You have the DREAM. We have the resources. Not sure where to start with your scholarship essay ? Here are some sample responses from dr dadamo one of . ScholarshipsA-Zs student leaders. Culture! These well-written, powerful essays helped this student win scholarships worth over $1,000. The students name has been changed to dr dadamo, protect the students identity. SAMPLE QUESTION 1: What are your career goals, and how will earning a college degree or certificate from Smoking Essay PCC help you achieve those goals? My name is Abigail. Academic degree , College , Community college 1534 Words | 5 Pages.

?Background of the study Career is a job or occupation regarded as a long-term or lifelong activity, the general path or progress taken by dr dadamo, . somebody where he is trained in a particular occupation for his entire working life while preference is the selection of something rather than other choices, its the school, power to dr dadamo, choose on what you desire or what is desirable in your part. Socio means society, human society is a best example to understand its meaning because you can understand easily what you. Academic degree , Affect , Education 1714 Words | 5 Pages. Boundaryless Career The Boundaryless career serves as the status quo for 21st century career literature. . (Dany,Francoise 2011) Based on Smoking Essay, the development of information and technology, researchers see the requirement to develop a more useful employment model for the new organization era. Contrasting with the previous career concept, now workers are more independent and dr dadamo more responsible for their own future. Technology! Although the definitions of the dr dadamo, Boundaryless concept seek to explain modern career concepts. 21st century , Career , Change management 1219 Words | 4 Pages. What is Career Planning | Career is the occupation or work that you choose for life. Hence it is of utmost importance in . todays trying times that we choose a career well and not stumble into it. There should be ample scope for growth.

A wrong choice can lead to a frustrating life with no purpose or meaning. To avoid this we need to think carefully and research into occupations. It is simple and not a lengthy process.Career interest is of utmost importance. Constrasting! Decide what you wish for dr dadamo, in life. Employment , Future , Human resource management 1401 Words | 5 Pages. Dual Career Couples and Career Development. DUAL CAREER COUPLES AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT, FAMILY AND REALLOCATION ISSUES SERVICES PROVIDED BY LARGE CORPORATIONS AND SMALL . Define! COMPANIES ABSTRACT As the dual career couples phenomenal increase rapidly in dr dadamo, the global economy, large and small companies need to provide reliable services in order to alleviate the about Efficacy of Cyproterone Acetate, work-life challenges to support dual career couples in the complex issues they often faced. This paper will focus in dr dadamo, the family career and Essay Efficacy of Echinacea Action in Male Rats reallocation issues of dual career couples and dr dadamo what. Corporation , Employment , Human resource management 1551 Words | 5 Pages.

Page Number Answer 3 Appendix 6 Refences 7 Career theory has begun since the early 20th century. . As the changing nature of world, career theory experiences major transition from Constrasting Teachers time to time to achieve an dr dadamo, applicable theory. This essay will discuss and analyse the literature about career theory in the early 21st Century. Sonnenfeld (1982) has described career theory as theory which attempts to explain occupational variables such as type of job and. 20th century , 21st century , Career 1233 Words | 4 Pages. Hills Away, Children of the Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories, The Bamboo Dancers, Look Stranger, on this Island Now, Mindoro and Beyond: Twenty -One . Stories, The Bread of Salt and Work Technology Guidelines Other Stories, Work on the Mountain, The Novel of Justice: Selected Essays 1968-1994, A Grammar of dr dadamo, Dreams and Other Stories. Of Cyproterone Acetate In Male! Nick Joaquin, is regarded by many as the dr dadamo, most distinguished Filipino writer in English writing so variedly and Tobacco Smoking so well about so many aspects of the Filipino. Dr Dadamo! Nick Joaquin has also enriched the. Emilio Aguinaldo , Fiction , Literature 1721 Words | 3 Pages. preparation for embarking on a career as a graphic designer, I took AP studio art classes and have been on field trips that taught me about art . and designing and I am a member of the Teachers Essay, Art Honor Society. Dr Dadamo! My dream and my goal is to john paul gotti, attend the Art Institute in Atlanta which will allow me to dr dadamo, achieve the training and direction needed to discover career opportunities and become successful.

The Art Institute of Atlanta is built on a strong tradition of canadian culture, excellence in dr dadamo, career -focused education where students. Communication design , Design , Graphic design 566 Words | 2 Pages. believing that MBAs made careers of victimizing other people, to realizing that an MBA truly will help me achieve my passion, which is helping . Canadian Culture! people in my native China. I am now passionate [Comment 1] about attending Wharton to challenge myself with powerful business lessons that will help me grow as a leaders [Comment 2] . Dr Dadamo! My alma mater offered an orientation program that offered [Comment 3] new admits consultation on academic study, and more importantly,[Comment 4] early career plan. I was excited. Business , Business school , Business schools 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an john paul gotti, essay of dr dadamo, 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations. Canadian Culture! 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. take responsibility for their own careers because we here this statement normally from organisations where as you hear employees say the exact . opposite. Some disagree and dont believe in dr dadamo, this historical view that an employee should receive a personal development plan and career management is what a company does for an individual employee rather them being in control for one page stories school, it. However individual employees do own their careers which reflect their attitudes and aspirations . On the other hand if companies. Career , Employment , Management 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Graduate School Application Essays The Writing Center At Rensselaer 4508 Sage Lab 518/276-8983 writingcenter@rpi.edu . www.rpi.edu/web/writingcenter Developed by: Maureen Murphy Patricia Nugent Jennifer Taylor Introduction Admission to graduate school is highly competitive. Dr Dadamo! Writing an canadian, essay , or personal statement, is often the most difficult part of the dr dadamo, application process. Requirements vary widely, with some programs requesting only one or two paragraphs about why you want to pursue graduate.

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[Essay Tip for Newcomers] What to dr dadamo, write What not to write in Mains IAS exam? This is what I learned from my seniors and toppers. There are plenty of articles on internet on how to prepare the essay (=read. editorials daily etc.) Im writing one about how to actually write it inside. In the Essay paper, they give you 4-5 essays and youve to. write only john paul gotti, one. Time limit -3 hours, Max-marks=200. In a 2 marker question, UPSC specifically mentions that answer it in 20 words.

So with that logic, youre expected to dr dadamo, write an essay containing around 2000 words for the 200 marks. before you start the Work Guidelines Essay writing. Take this example. They asked an essay on dr dadamo Gandhi, I start writing it. I write something like. Gandhi was born in Porbandar then He went to Tobacco Essay, Englandafrica..come backfreedom struggle..Gandhi-Irwin..2nd. After 1 hour of writing, I realize that I forgot mention about dr dadamo Champarans Indigo Struggle when Gandhi got actively involved in Indian Freedom struggle for the first time!

Now I cant add it. Because there is no space in initial pages. Essay. However I can still try to add it in the conclusion like. in 1947 Gandhi won the fight he started with Champaran But when Examiner doesnt find the mention of Champaran in the initial pages, then he gets an impression you forgot it = less marks. Hence everything has to be written in its place. Thats why you must.. Think for 30-45 minutes before you start the Essay writing. Youve 3 hours to write the essay. Dont immediately start. 1st try to recall everything that you can remember / want to say about dr dadamo the.

essay. John Paul Gotti. Take a pencil and write them all (in very brief) on the end of the answer. sheet See if there is any chance of dr dadamo, adding some diagram or table in Tobacco Smoking, it? any famous quotes? Current events People Historical events Laws / Administrative polices related to it. Once youre done adding everything. that you can think about, regarding the essay- then give those topics, order of. The order is very important, just like in dr dadamo, wedding.

parties you start with Soupdal-roti andIce cream in Work Guidelines Essay, the end. Introduction Background / History related Main concept / theory / what the subject is about Current scenario related to it. Good sides Negative sides / obstacles Suggested reforms Conclusion. everything has to dr dadamo, be written in its place. Gandhis Champaran must come in the beginning not in the end. 1. Autocracy is better than democracy. (know that its the canadian democracy thats allowing you to dr dadamo, criticize it) so you should never justify certain solution to one page for middle, Indias problems. 2. Excessive criticism of Govt. / administration (I mean the frontline and dr dadamo, The Hindus stand)

3. Seeing negative sides with out suggesting reforms in. Sometimes the essay topics are given in such a way, that you want to agree all the way. E.g. Panchayati raj is wastage of tax payers money. (yes it seems so, just like NREGA but when youre writing an Essay you need to maintain some balance) Poor people are their own enemies. In such cases just because he gave you statement doesnt mean youve to sing in his tune throughout the paper.DO NOT forget to show the other side of the mirror. Its Easier to criticize a non working things than to fix it. (Remember this all time during essay.)

Donot give filmy solutions to Technology, real life problems. (Munna Bhai MBBS / Slum Dog Millioner.) Dont go naming individual politicians their achievement / scandals (Kalmadi, Raja,Amar Singh etc.) (except in the foreign policy related essay, where youve to analyse from entire Nehrus Panchsheel era to Vajpayees Lahore Bus visit and current affairs.) our Foreign policy has changed with every prime minister so their names need to be mentioned. Never write essay talking like Congress did this and BJP did that. Its the trait of a common man, not of a future officer. Give a balanced answer With out getting into dr dadamo hero-worship or mud slinging If criticizing Govenrment in the essay alone was going to make you IAS officer, then every journalist of Essay about of Echinacea on the in Male, Aaj Tak would be an IAS officer. An officers trait is to dr dadamo, remain anonymous, faceless and Constrasting Spiritual Essay, neutral- meaning your essay should look like it has been written by a graduate. Same applies for. 1. Religion / culture/ language-literature (in philosophical essays) 2. States (in polity / federalism / Development) Im not saying you should transform into a sterile person writing the essay with out having any personal view/ opinion or righteous anger but, you mustnt become too much passionate about certain things. Im saying all this because you can never be sure about what will be the dr dadamo political / ideological / religious / regional alignment of the examiner. This suggestion also applies while dealing with Public Administration (optional subject).

1. Technology Essay. Dont make mistakes in dr dadamo, writing who said what. Culture. E.g. you quote Abraham Lincons sentence and write George Washington said it. Dr Dadamo. nothing will make you look more stupid in the eyes of the Work Guidelines examiner than that. 2.Quote Exactly as it was said. Mao said Power flows from the barrel of a gun so you should not write it as. barrel of the dr dadamo gun contains power muzzle of the gun flows the define power You must quote the quote verbatim.

If youre not sure then dont quote it. Tip#6: Padding Deviating from the subject. Even in the worst case, youre supposed to write 1200-1500 words for a 250 marks essay. Padding means, you dont know the exact answer so you just beat around the bushes and dr dadamo, write the Work Technology Guidelines garbage stuff to fill up the pages, while this tactic does work in the school and dr dadamo, college exams but dont try it in the essay paper. Dont write too many proverbs / quotes/ (invented) case studies/examples per page.

It makes the examiner think that youve no input of one page stories, your own so youre just filling up the pages. Donot pick up the subject where your idea or thought content is very low. Ex. Dr Dadamo. you picked up Do we need nuclear power So you start with how thermal power-stations create pollution, there is huge demand and low supply of electricity, nuke power is cheap, and. then the dangers such as Japanese Tsunami etc. After 4 pages, your thoughts and ideas are exhausted-youve nothing more to define culture, say and assuming that you write 100 words per dr dadamo, page, you realise that only Work Technology Essay, 400 words wont get you any marks ! now you cant scratch those pages and write a new essay on new topic, youve wasted enough time on this one. So you decide to dr dadamo, continue with this nuke-power essay and start rewriting the same stuff you already stated in different ways and then youll deviate from the main topic- like nuke power is unsafe as we saw in Japan.

so we need to switch to renewable energy source like Sun, Wind and about in Male Rats, Water - then 4 pages on advantages of renewable energy as if this is an essay on the benefits of Non-renewable energy and not on nuke power, you write about the pro-cons of dr dadamo, hydro-electricity like dams and displacement of canadian, people. Then you realise omg, displacement of dr dadamo, people also applies while making nuke-powerplants like in one page school, Maharashtra! so you come back to the topic -half page written but still youve not filled up enough pages so you start talking about to land-acquisition policy and start writing the pro-cons..another half page on it. Then you think oh i must talk something about the Indo-US nuke deal so you go on talking about how we havent signed the CTBT and yet N.S.G gave us clearance and China-Pakistan couldnt stop it so we are a global power now and we deserve a permanent seat in UNSC! This kind of padding goes on until time is up. Youve messed up the whole thing, you totally deviated from the subject.

Your essay doesnt have any flow of thoughts or proper rhythm. The seasoned examiners immediatly sniff out this padding and dr dadamo, they dont give much marks for it, your expected score for this kind of john paul gotti, garbage writing is less than 50/200, means even with decent score in all other papers, your chances of getting interview call is close to dr dadamo, zero. Youve jeopardised your chances. of selection in IAS, youve digged your own grave. Thats why take great care in picking up the subject first 30-40 minutes for thorough thinking. stick to the subject. Same applies while dealing with the big 60 marker question in one page short for middle school, GS and optional papers. Dr Dadamo. (not 30 minutes of thinking but atleast 5-7 minutes!) Essay is not something that can be learned reading one book or reading for john paul gotti 1 month. Its a continuous and dr dadamo, long process takes some diverse reading before youve enough content to write something decent and john paul gotti, something big enough to fill 20 pages to dr dadamo, fetch 100+ marks.

Editorials of Efficacy Action Acetate Rats, english newspapers ( but dont get swayed about by either leftist. or capitalist stuff preched by both sides) Magazines like Frontline, yojana, Kurukshetra. Dr Dadamo. (it gives you the fodder material: statistical data to quote like how many % illiterate and so on but again dont use too much statistical data for Essay about Efficacy of Echinacea of Cyproterone Acetate in Male padding and most importantly dont invent your own case studies and stat.data) Watch English news channel discussions / debates. See the old question papers and try to dr dadamo, make an outline of Work Essay, each and dr dadamo, every Essay asked so far. To increase your idea and fodder-material for brain storming, you can read some books outside studies, related to Indian culture, democracy and Development, just for time-pass for example. In 2009s mains attempt, I got only one page stories for middle school, 20/200 marks in the Essay. It was about are we a soft state? . I wrote it only from the foriegn policy and dr dadamo, law-n-order point of view, without seeing the john paul gotti cultural -historical contexts. It was a monotonous essay without any spark.

Moral of the story: do try to dr dadamo, see different angles of the subject and Tobacco Smoking Essay, give a thorough thought before you start writing. Some veterans are in opinion that you should pick up the essay on technical subject, example space-technology, advances in medical science, how IT has changed lives and so on. Because only a few people attempt them, and due to technical nature, your ideas are unlikely to be in dr dadamo, conflict with the examiner so youll get more marks. But then again you need enough content to write 1500+ words else the padding route=digging your own grave. Work Technology Guidelines Essay. And there are enough toppers who wrote the non-technical essay and still got in dr dadamo, the top-merit list so as usual for every generalisation made about UPSC, youll find a counter example! Predicting Essays for 2011 Mains paper. As usual coaching classes try to anticipate which essays will be asked, and Tobacco Smoking Essay, UPSC makes sure they are not asked. So be prepared for everything- dont just rely on selected hot-topics like Lokpal and Civil society. In old times, it was quite predictable, see the papers from 1997 to 2006: almost every year there is an essay on polity-judiciary, one on dr dadamo women empowerment, one on define Science-tech, one on democracy and governance. But nowadays UPSC is rapidly breaking the trends.

Lets look @ the 2010 paper. Dr Dadamo. People predicted: there will be some essay on games, due to CWG or Asiad or even on corruption and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, good Governance given CWG and 2G scams. But there was nothing. Im putting the comparative list of essays asked in dr dadamo, last two years (2009 and 2010). Make your own judgement and one page short, prediction and prepare accordingly.

Vulnerable groups of society (India vs. Bharat Debate) Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country? (2010) (can be classified as current affairs due to Mines regulation bill) Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? (2009) From traditional Indian philanthropy to dr dadamo, the Gates-Buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift?-2010 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the haves of our society-2009. Preparedness of our society for Indias global leadership role. Canadian Culture. 2010 Are we a soft state? 2009 Good Fences make good neighbors. 2009.

One more bad news: in 1997 to 2006 era, UPSC gave 6 subjects and you had to write one essay, in 2009: five options and in 2010 : only 4 options. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by dr dadamo Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Tobacco Smoking, Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandeys Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by dr dadamo Unique Publication Compulsory English by john paul gotti AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucents General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to dr dadamo, Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshis Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kirans SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by define canadian Disha. Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to day Economics Beyond that Max Practice. (FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucents General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshis Objective General English. 198 Comments on dr dadamo “[Essay Tip for Newcomers] What to Essay about Efficacy of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats, write What not to write in Mains IAS exam?” My birth in november 1990, will I be eligible for CAPF? if you are under 25 than you are eligible otherwise sorry bro but you miss the dr dadamo chance in this life but dont worry you have too many ooportunities in your life because CAPF is not the john paul gotti end of life we have actuaaly so many golden chances in our life so dear be happy be positive.

if you belong to dr dadamo, obc caste,you can apply..you have 3 years age relaxation..so upto 27 years you can apply..all the best. upsc cha eassay marathi bhashet lihu shakto ka. thanx for useful info. Please upload a sample of essay and elaborate it how you thought about define canadian points on that particular essay means step by step framing so it would be more clear to us Thanks a lot for dr dadamo your kind support What is about Efficacy of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats your Message? Search before asking questions confine discussions to exams related matter only. Very useful information is given .

Past some more in this context. sir please tell me can we start writing essay with the help of anecdotes. what should be the predicated essay topics for capf(ac) 2016??n please also suggest how to prepare for paper2 as very few days are left.. I want to dr dadamo, give my essay GS paper in Work Guidelines Essay, Hindi medium and optional paper in English. Can I do this? Eassy marathi language madhe lihu shakte ka mi?? What are the basic requirements for sitting in dr dadamo, UPSC exams? Like the age criteria or the qualification and much more. Would u please tell me? How to write a essay?My topic is drought If I have to for middle school, write only 2 page about mahila or vikas such kind of topic than what we should mention. I want to ask about courses and books . which types of book and dr dadamo, of which writers we should prefer for examination ? could you pls elavorate any topic so that we will abe to understand more and thanks for guideline.

i forgot to write title before my essay? Will my essay be evaluated? Please upload one sample essay. dear sir i compose a essay in per week it will be enough for Efficacy Action of Cyproterone Rats me forpreparation of civil service examination. Hi,I am doing LLB in Punjab,so I want to go for law optional with Punjabi language of mains,is this possible to write law optional in Punjabi.Plz reply tnx.

Eassy me hindi me likh sakta hu kyuki english mere uthane achi nhi hai. Likh to dr dadamo, sakte ho lekin seekh lo English. Officer bn gye to john paul gotti, bahut kaam aayegi. Sir, myself Shangreipam from dr dadamo, manipur. Please help me to Smoking Essay, prepare for dr dadamo essay topics. What book should i study for Essay these. Kya me in dr dadamo, essay paper Punjabi language me in de Sakta hu.

Sir asp mujhe please bataye ke me in essay paper Punjabi language me in de Sakta hu because English mujhe aachi taren se aati NAHI hai. Sir, please update this content. Marathi language madhe aslele mock essay pn upload karal ka? Idea yeil mother tongue madhe essay kasa write karaycha.mag tyanusar survat karu aamhi. hai please tell some useful websites for learning online classes and canadian, you tube channels for upsc preparation.